New Survey Results Indicate That Nigeria Has an HIV Prevalence of 1.4%

Nigeria and HIV

According to a study conducted by UNIAIDS and the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), about 1.9 million people are living with HIV in Nigeria. However, the federal government of Nigeria has released a result that indicates an HIV prevalence of 1.4%.

Read More: HIV in Ghana is on the rise

This is contrary to the previous estimates of 2.8%. During the launching of the Revised National HIV and AIDS Strategic Framework (2019-2021) held in Abuja recently, Muhammadu Buhari, the President of Nigeria, acknowledged that there are now fewer people living with HIV in the country than before. This is a clear indication that the country has improved drastically with preventive measures and response to the epidemic in recent years.

Optimism of possibly ending AIDS in Nigeria by 2030

The president also expressed optimism that the end of AIDS by 2030 might become a possibility for Nigeria. He went ahead to urge all stakeholders and relevant agencies not to relent in their effort to bring the epidemic to an abrupt end.

Mike Sidibe, who is the Executive Director of UNAIDS, acknowledged the new estimates as a welcomed development. He went further to express satisfaction about the country’s present disposition towards HIV and AIDS. That it will allow the country to reach out to more people living with the virus, he also expressed optimism that the end of the epidemic is drawing nearer come 2030.

New estimates

According to the new estimates, there are more women (15-49 years) living with HIV than men. The national prevalence is 1.4% among adults between the ages of 15 and 49 years. HIV prevalence in children is about 0.2% of the total population of people living with the virus. However, several NGO’s and agencies have risen to stop the spread of HIV among children and infants.

With the new estimates, it is expected that the federal government can better invest in preventive measures and conduct effective planning for the control and prevention of HIV and AIDS in the country. More so, some populations will be controlled and limited to the barest minimum, such as female sex workers. When the virus is heavily suppressed, the rate of transmission through sex will be significantly reduced.

The Minister of Health

In a speech delivered by the Minister of Health, Isaac F. Adewole, he opined that people living with the virus need to have access to healthcare and retroviral drugs to achieve a high degree of suppression. He also said that pregnant women should have access to antenatal care and undergo proper testing for the virus during each pregnancy. “Early detection is the key to controlling the spread of the epidemic. Let’s ensure the next generation is free from HIV,” he concluded.

The new data generated are more accurate than the previous estimates because they are based on an enhanced methodology and an expanded surveillance system. Over the years, the number of facilities and agencies responsible for HIV prevention has tripled. The number of mother-to-child prevention centers has increased drastically. This has led to an increase in the response rate to the epidemic.

HIV in Ghana is on the rise

HIV information

Ghana has been struggling to reduce the number of HIV infections for years. In this region, there are around 150,000 people with HIV. In 2014, the HIV prevalence rate was recorded at 1.37%, with the lowest rates registered in the north region of Ghana, and the highest in the east.

To control this epidemic, the government appointed the Ghana AIDS Commission. This commission is in charge of handling the treatment, awareness, and education for HIV and AIDS-related health issues.

But, despite the increased awareness and access to HIV treatment, this disease in the Sub-Saharan African region is still one of the most common causes of death. Statistics from 2017 show that HIV was, in fact, responsible for 13,878 deaths.

The Rates of HIV Infections in Ghana Keep Increasing

There is a drastic increase in individuals infected with HIV, according to the Ghana AIDS Commission.

Based on the 2018 statistics, there were 19,931 newly recorded HIV infections, stated the commission in a most recent announcement in 2019, December 1. Their announcement was released to the community through media, mosques, and churches.

3,317 of the newly infected were young children between the ages of 0 and 14, while the rest of the 16,614 were adults.

The most common ways of transmission for the 334,717 already living with HIV, are through:

  • Unprotected sexual intercourse
  • Using various unsterilized sharp instruments.
  • mother-to-child transmission (MTCT)

Statistics from 2016 show the same results, the number of newly infected individuals from 2010 to 2016 increased by a staggering 21%. The most infected were those between the ages of 15 and 24, which are 45% of all the infected.

While Ghana has successfully managed to reduce other common STIs infections by 16%, HIV still remains a serious problem.

What Is Being Done to Control HIV in Ghana?

To ensure access to medicines for HIV treatment, the PEPFAR (The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief) has issued $23.7 million for AIDS and HIV treatment in Ghana. With the help of additional programs, PEPFAR has implemented a load of viral testing to prevent and control the spread of the infection in this region.

The Network of Persons living with AIDS and HIV in Ghana have been urging the government to boost their District Assemblies Common Fund to provide more funding for HIV and AIDS treatment.

A conference was held in May 2018 to propose new measures for controlling the HIV disease. Some of the leading institutions that participated in the conference were the CDC – Atlanta’s Centers for Disease Control and the U.S. HIV Research Program. At the conference, the government stated they would assess implications by 2020 in an effort to end AIDS and HIV by 2030.

HIV infections are still a pressing matter for Ghana

HIV infections are still a pressing matter for Ghana. This epidemic has forced the region to start working on implementing a series of programs and policies to stop the spread of the disease and better-manage the infection. More time is necessary, however, to see the full extent of these changes and whether they will have any positive results.

References

https://www.myjoyonline.com/lifestyle/2019/November-29th/hiv-infections-on-the-rise-19000-new-cases-recorded-in-2018-ghana-aids-commission.php

http://www.healthdata.org/sites/default/files/files/images/news_release/2019/HIV%20Press%20Release%20-%20GHANA.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV/AIDS_in_Ghana

https://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/Government-raises-concern-as-HIV-infections-increase-by-21-650173

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6527824/

Congenital Syphilis is On the Rise with Developing Countries at a Major Risk

Syphilis information

Congenital syphilis is the second cause of stillbirths around the world, malaria being the first. This infection is an incredibly common STIs that has resulted in more than 200,000 stillbirths across the globe. Plus, there are 6 million new reported cases of infected every single year.

In order to eliminate this infection on a global scale, the WHO has made it their mission to give access to adequate syphilis treatment and testing for any pregnant woman. The idea is to boost the overall health and improve the survival rate of children born in developing countries.

However, these countries, particularly in the sub-Saharan African region, have long been struggling to deal with the infection. It seems that they have yet to fulfill their goal of dealing with congenital syphilis.

Read more: Syphilis Symptoms

The Importance of Early Syphilis Diagnostics for Pregnant Women

With the current advances in science and technology, there are adequate medications that can help treat this infection. Plus, it is easily preventable, so people can take precautions to avoid this infection altogether.

For pregnant women, however, the timing has to be impeccable. These women need to seek syphilis screenings early in the pregnancy to receive benzathine penicillin G (BPG). The best time for this screening would be right before the second trimester.

Shortage of Benzathine Penicillin Puts a Strain on Syphilis Treatment

In many parts of the world, WHO has been successful in eliminating congenital syphilis in pregnant women. Twelve countries have managed to eliminate maternal syphilis completely. For developing countries, however, it’s a completely different story.

Read More: Syphilis Treatment

In these countries, there is one major issue, and that is the shortage of benzathine penicillin.

Based on an analysis carried out by multiple research programs for health, of the 95 countries evaluated, 49% had BPG shortages, while 59% stated they had adequate supplies for all their patients.

Due to BPG shortages, 10 of these countries stated relying on alternative and cheaper treatment.

They used ceftriaxone, erythromycin, and amoxicillin. The problem is that these treatments were not nearly as effective as BPG for maternal syphilis. In other words, women who received these treatments could still pass their infection onto the fetus.

The Need for Immediate Action Is Now

According to WHO, 95% of all pregnant women who get prenatal care should be screened for congenital syphilis. Testing for syphilis is of utmost importance for early and adequate syphilis treatment.

This should be the main concern for prenatal care for all countries. If a woman is diagnosed with this infection, she needs to get proper BPG treatment to make sure the infection is no longer in her system.

Product: Right Sign Syphilis Test

Product: One Step Syphilis Test

Monitoring Health Is the Key to Eliminating Congenital Syphilis

Once a woman has been treated for syphilis, especially when pregnant, her health must be monitored closely to make sure the infection doesn’t reappear or progress. This helps detect the infection early on and receive treatment to avoid any potential complications.

Congenital syphilis can be easily managed

Congenital syphilis can be easily managed and treated. But, without an on-time diagnosis, a pregnant woman can pass this infection onto her child and cause premature death, low infant weight, defects, and can cause deformities. As a result, syphilis screening and treatment should be a top priority for all developing countries.

References

https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/congenital-syphilis-estimates/en/

https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/shortages-benzathine-penicillin/en/ https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/congenital-syphilis/WHO-validation-EMTCT/en/

Common STDs and How to Recognize Them

Online STI Test Kits For Home Use

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are conditions passed from one person to another through sexual contact. Millions of people around the globe have STDs, especially in developing countries, including Ghana and other African nations. Prevention of STDs is entirely possible, but to make it happen, we need to get informed and learn as much as we can about them. The main purpose of this post is to highlight common STDs and show you how to recognize their symptoms.

Genital herpes

Genital herpes is a common STD caused by the herpes simplex virus. The virus is categorized into two types: HSV-1, which is mainly transmitted through oral-to-oral contact, usually causing cold sores, but can also induce genital herpes and HSV-2, which is an STD.

How common is genital herpes?

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 3.7 billion people under the age of 50, or 67% of the world population, have HSV-1 infection. About 417 million people aged 15-49, or 11% of the world population, have HSV-2 infection. Estimates show that 350 million women (87%) and 355 million men (87%) in Africa have HSV-1 virus. On the other hand, the HSV-2 virus affects 17 million women in 18 million men in Africa.

Evidence confirms that the prevalence of genital herpes in Ghana is high, and it could be attributed to high endemicity and inadequate intervention, especially in women.

Read More: Genital Herpes in Ghana

Who is at risk of developing genital herpes?

Generally speaking, every sexually active man or woman can develop genital herpes. That being said, some people are at a higher risk than others. Common risk factors associated with genital herpes include:

  • Having unprotected vaginal, anal, and oral sex
  • Having multiple sex partners
  • Having a sexual partner who tested positive for genital herpes
  • Being a woman

Symptoms of genital herpes

The ability to recognize the signs and symptoms of some STD helps an affected man or woman to get much-needed treatment. That’s why it’s important to learn how to recognize symptoms of genital herpes, particularly because most people are not even aware they have it. In most cases, symptoms are mild, and patients think they will go away on their own without realizing they have an STD, which they can transmit to other people.

Symptoms tend to develop two to 12 days after exposure to HSV. People usually experience:

  • Pain and tenderness in the genital area
  • Itching in the genital area
  • Small red bumps or tiny white blisters
  • Ulcers which can rapture, bleed, ooze, and make it difficult to urinate
  • Scabs on the sites where ulcers rapture

An affected person experiences flu-like symptoms during the initial outbreak. They may also experience headache, muscle ache, fever, and swollen lymph nodes in the groin. Sores associated with genital herpes develop on buttocks, thighs, anus, mouth, and even urethra. Women can also develop sores on the cervix and external genitals while men can notice them on scrotum and penis.

Men and women with recurrent herpes develop symptoms about 48 hours before the outbreak. They may notice tingling, pain, and itching at the site of infection. The pain may, in some cases, extend down to buttocks and knees.

Read More: Genital Herpes Symptoms

Why get treated?

Unfortunately, many men and women don’t go to see their doctor get this STD treated. When left unmanaged, genital herpes can lead to many complications such as increased risk to other STDs, meningitis, proctitis (rectal inflammation), bladder problems, and infection of the newborn.

How is genital herpes treated?

The cure which could eliminate genital herpes entirely doesn’t exist, but it is still possible to get the necessary treatment. The main objective of the treatment is to lower the chances of transmitting genital herpes to other people, reduce the frequency of occurrence, lower severity of symptoms, and help sores heal. For this purpose, doctors prescribe antiviral medications such as Acyclovir (Zovirax) and Valacyclovir (Valtrex).

Getting tested regularly is important, and luckily, today, you can order a test online and do it in the comfort of your home rather than scheduling an appointment at the doctor’s office.

Read More: Genital Herpes Treatment

Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is an STD caused by infection with the bacterium called Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which tends to infect moist and warm areas of the body such as urethra, eyes, throat, vagina, anus, and female reproductive tract.

How common is gonorrhea?

Sometimes referred to as “the clap,” gonorrhea is one of the most prevalent STDs. On a global level, 87 million new cases of gonorrhea are diagnosed each year. Like many other STDs, gonorrhea is also more prevalent in developing countries. For example, one study showed that out of 950 subjects from Ghana, 28% of them had gonorrhea, and men were more likely to develop it than women.

Read More: Gonorrhea in Ghana

Who is at risk of developing gonorrhea?

Just like with other sexually transmitted diseases, every man or woman who engages in sexual intercourse can develop gonorrhea. But, the risk is higher in some groups. Factors that increase your odds of developing gonorrhea include:

  • Younger age
  • Having a new sex partner
  • History of other sexually transmitted diseases
  • History of gonorrhea
  • Having a sex partner who also has concurrent partners

Symptoms of gonorrhea

Some people have no symptoms at all, but it doesn’t mean there is no infection. The absence of symptoms can still mean you are infected and also able to transmit this STD to other people. Generally speaking, signs and symptoms of gonorrhea develop one to 14 days after the infection. Men and women experience gonorrhea differently, and below you can see how they feel when they develop this STD.

Men tend to experience:

  • Painful, red, warm and swollen joints
  • White, yellow, or green urethral discharge that looks like pus
  • Pain in the eyes, sensitivity to the light, pus-like discharge from the eyes
  • Pain in scrotum or testicles
  • Itching
  • Difficulty swallowing or swollen lymph nodes in the neck
  • Frequent or painful urination
  • Anal discharge, itching, and pain in the anal area bleeding when passing stool

On the flip side, women with gonorrhea may notice:

  • Fever
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Swollen, red, warm, and painful joints
  • Vaginal discharge yellow or green in color
  • Swelling of the vulva
  • Frequent and painful urination
  • Sore throat, itching, difficulty swallowing, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck
  • Bleeding in between periods
  • Heavier periods
  • Abdominal or pelvic pain and vomiting
  • Bleeding after sexual intercourse
  • Itching and pain in the anal area

Read More: Gonorrhea Symptoms

Why get treated?

As seen above, some men and women may not notice any symptoms at all, but they are still infected. That is why it is crucial to get tested regularly, and home tests could be incredibly practical in this case. Being proactive about sexual health and symptoms of gonorrhea allows you to get the necessary treatment in a timely manner. When left ignored, gonorrhea can cause multiple complications such as infertility, an infection that spreads to other areas and joints in the body, a higher risk of HIV/AIDS, and complications in babies born to infected mothers.

How is gonorrhea treated

The primary route of treatment of gonorrhea is through antibiotics. Partners of infected men and women are also encouraged to get tested in order to prevent transmitting the STD back and forth or to other people.

Read More: Gonorrhea Treatment

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a common, sexually transmitted disease that affects men and women alike. Just like other STDs, Chlamydia is caused by bacteria, and in this case, that is Chlamydia trachomatis. The STD can be spread through vaginal, anal, and oral sex, but it is also possible for pregnant women to spread Chlamydia to their babies during delivery.

How common is Chlamydia?

According to the WHO, about 127 million cases of Chlamydia are diagnosed each year. That is a staggering number. One of the most common reasons behind the ever-growing incidence of Chlamydia, especially in developing nations such as Ghana, is the lack of public awareness. In fact, the prevalence of STDs in Ghana is expected to grow as stigmatization continues. And, as you are already aware, stigmatization occurs due to the absence of the above-mentioned public awareness.

Read More: Chlamydia in Ghana

Who is at risk of developing Chlamydia?

Factors that increase a person’s risk of developing this sexually transmitted disease include:

  • History of some STD
  • Having sex without a condom
  • Changing multiple sex partners in a year
  • Being sexually active before the age of 25

Getting tested regularly can help decrease your risk of developing Chlamydia. Regular tests also raise awareness of this STD, fight stigmatization, and prevent spreading Chlamydia to other people. Besides “traditional” testing at clinics or hospitals, people can also get at-home tests for Chlamydia, which may be practical for those who want more privacy throughout the whole process.

Symptoms of Chlamydia

Chlamydia is often considered as “silent” infection because many people have it although they don’t experience any symptoms. But, just like with other STDs, the absence of symptoms can still mean you are infected, and you can transmit it to someone else. Bear in mind that even if Chlamydia doesn’t cause any symptoms, it can still damage the reproductive system. First signs and symptoms tend to occur one to two weeks after the exposure to the bacterium. Men and women tend to experience this STD differently. Below, you can see the signs and symptoms of Chlamydia in men and women.

Men may notice the following:

  • Pain in the testicles
  • Burning sensation while urinating
  • Pain in the lower abdomen
  • Green or yellow discharge from the penis

It’s also possible to get the infection in anus. In this case, a man may notice pain, bleeding, and discharge from this area.

On the other hand, women may experience these symptoms:

  • Bleeding between periods
  • Painful sexual intercourse
  • Cervicitis (inflammation of the cervix)
  • Pain in the lower abdomen
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Burning sensation while urinating

In some cases, the STD can spread to the fallopian tubes.

Read More: Chlamydia Symptoms

Why get treated?

Reasons to be proactive about the prevention and treatment of Chlamydia (as well as other STDs) are numerous. Besides lowering the risk of transmitting Chlamydia to someone else, you can also decrease the likelihood of experiencing various complications. When left ignored or unmanaged, Chlamydia can harm your health in more ways than one. Some of the most common complications include increased risk of other STDs, pelvic inflammatory disease, infection near the testicles, infections in newborns, infection of prostate, reactive arthritis, and infertility.

Read More: Chlamydia Treatment

How is Chlamydia treated?

Just like other STDs, Chlamydia is treated with antibiotics. A patient may receive a one-time dose, or he or she may need to take the drugs a few times a day for five to 10 days, depending on the severity of symptoms. Generally speaking, the infection goes away in one to two weeks. It goes without saying you need to abstain from sex during this time.

Syphilis

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by bacterium Treponema pallidum, and it develops in four stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary. The bacteria can spread from one person to another through direct contact with a syphilitic sore. Just like other STDs, this one also spreads through sexual contact i.e., vaginal, anal, and oral sex.

How common is syphilis?

The World Health Organization reports that 6.3 million cases of syphilis are recorded each year around the globe. In 2016, the last year for which data is available on a global level, 1 million pregnant women had active syphilis, which led to 350,000 adverse birth outcomes. Of these, 200,000 accounted for stillbirths and neonatal death. In Africa, the prevalence of syphilis is high, especially in males in rural areas. One study of pregnant women showed that the cumulative prevalence of syphilis among 4181 blood donors over a five-year period was 2.58% in Ghana.

Population-based studies show greater prevalence, and scientists point out that the lack of precise information can be correct with further research on this topic. More precise information allows scientists and healthcare professionals to create programs to raise awareness and prevent this STD from spreading.

Read More: Syphilis in Ghana

Who is at risk of developing syphilis?

You may have a higher risk of developing syphilis if these factors apply to you:

  • HIV infection
  • Regularly engaging in unprotected and risky sex
  • Man who has sexual intercourse with other men
  • Changing multiple sexual partners

Symptoms of syphilis

Symptoms of syphilis vary from stage to stage.

The primary syphilis is usually indicated by chancre (small sore), which appears on the site where bacteria entered the body. The chancre develops about three weeks after exposure to bacteria. It may be hidden in rectum or vagina, so many people don’t notice it. Chancre tends to go away on its own in one to three weeks. Some people can have one chancre only, but others may have several, and it tends to be painless.

Secondary syphilis occurs within a few weeks after the chancre has healed. A person may notice:

  • Rash starting on the trunk and spreading across the body
  • Sores in mouth or genitals
  • Hair loss
  • Muscle aches
  • Fever
  • Sore throat
  • Swollen lymph nodes

The above-mentioned symptoms may go away in a few weeks, but in some cases, they come and go throughout the year.

Latent syphilis occurs when a person isn’t treated in the first two stages. This phase has no noticeable symptoms, but it may last for years before it progresses to the tertiary stage. The last stage of syphilis involves the spreading of the STD to other organs such as the brain, blood vessels, heart, bones, liver, and joints.

Read More: Syphilis Symptoms

Why get treated?

Without proper treatment, syphilis can progress from one stage to another and cause a number of complications such as the formation of small bumps or tumors on the skin, bones, and other organs, cardiovascular problems, neurological problems, higher risk of HIV, and complications in pregnancy and with childbirth.

How is syphilis treated?

Syphilis is easy to treat when diagnosed in early stages when doctors usually prescribe penicillin. In most cases, one injection is necessary. In later stages, syphilis can be difficult to treat, which is why it’s crucial to see the doctor as soon as you notice sore on your genital area.

Read More: Syphilis Treatment

Conclusion

Sexually transmitted diseases are common but are preventable. Practice safe sex, get tested regularly, and learn how to recognize signs and symptoms. The more you know, the safer you are.

Read More: STD’s in Ghana

References

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/herpes-simplex-virus

https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/28-10-2015-globally-an-estimated-two-thirds-of-the-population-under-50-are-infected-with-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6081947/

https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/sexually-transmitted-infections-(stis)

https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-019-4035-y#Sec5

https://www.ghanahealthservice.org/ghs-item-details.php?scid=22&iid=78

https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-019-3967-6#Sec11

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5998162/

1 in 9 Men Has Oral HPV

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the US. In fact, most sexually active men and women will contract HPV at some point in their life. More than 100 types of HPV have been identified so far, and more than 40 subtypes of the virus can infect one’s throat and genital region. Oral HPV is transmitted through oral sex, and it is one of the most prevalent forms of the virus. The latest figures show that one in nine American men is infected with oral HPV, which is a major reason for concern.

Prevalence of oral HPV among American men

Even though the prevalence of HPV-positive OPSCC (oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma) is high among men, the evidence about the difference in the prevalence of oral HPV among men and women is limited. The lack of data prevents scientists and healthcare providers from proposing adequate measures to lower the prevalence rates.

What’s more, concordance of genital and oral HPV among African men is still unknown. To get more insight into the subject and gain knowledge about the prevalence of oral HPV, Ashish A. Deshmukh, and a team of scientists at the University of Florida carried out an important study. Deshmukh and his team used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to analyze the rates of oral HPV and compare how many women and men are infected with this virus. Participants who took part in this large study were between 18 and 69 years old.

The results of the study were published in the Annals of Internal Medicine, and they showed that 11.5% of participants had HPV. Expectedly, the prevalence of both low- and high-risk HPV was higher in men than in women. For example, only 1.4% of women were infected with high-risk HPV, while 7.3% of men had this sexually transmitted infection. Both men and women from the 50-54 age group had a higher prevalence of the virus compared to their younger and older counterparts.

Findings also showed that 11 million men had oral HPV or one in nine men to be more precise. On the other hand, only 3.2 million women had this type of virus. It is still not clear why HPV is more frequent in men than in women.

Increasing rates of high-risk HPV

As mentioned above, men are more prone to high-risk HPV, and scientists just discovered how common this virus really is. They discovered that the most prevalent high-risk type of the virus, HPV 16, was six times higher in men than in women with a ratio of 1.8% vs. 0.3%.

The HPV 16 is a major contributor to cancers of the head and neck. These figures could also explain the rise incidence of oropharyngeal cancer. The rates of this cancer have increased by more than 300% during the last four decades, thus making it the most frequent HPV-related cancer in the country.

Other findings

Along with shocking findings of the prevalence of oral HPV and high-risk virus strains, scientists made other important discoveries too:

  • High-risk oral HPV was strongly linked with cigarette smoking and marijuana use
  • In 2016, 60% of teens ages 13-17 received at least one or more doses of HPV vaccine
  • Oral HPV is more prevalent in African-American men than in white men
  • The highest rates of oral HPV were found in men who reported having sexual intercourse with multiple partners, men with genital HPV, and men who had sex with other men

Conclusion

The latest study discovered that not only HPV is more prevalent in men, but oral HPV affects one in nine American men. At this point, scientists aren’t sure why the virus is more prevalent among men than in women, but risk factors include same-sex with other men, smoking (both cigarettes and marijuana), engaging in sexual intercourse with multiple partners.

References

http://annals.org/aim/article/2657698/oral-human-papillomavirus-infection-differences-prevalence-between-sexes-concordance-genital

http://edition.cnn.com/2017/10/16/health/oral-hpv-infections-men-study/index.html

http://time.com/4983675/human-papillomavirus-oral-hpv/

Testing and Diagnosis of Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea information

Many people are at risk of gonococcal infections without their knowledge. Likewise, many carry the bacterium in their bodies without realizing it. Women are more resilient in tolerating the disease in their bodies than men. It is not clear why the disease can incubate in the host for a certain period without showing any signs of sickness. The risk is you may still be active and infecting others during this period. That is why it is highly necessary to have a culture of regular screening and testing.

Product: Right Sign Gonorrhea Test

Product: One Step Gonorrhea test

Vulnerable Groups

Though everyone is in danger of the infections, some persons are highly exposed to the disease. These include

  • Persons who have unsafe sex
  • Gay community
  • Lesbians
  • Persons with multiple sexual partners
  • Drug addicts sharing needles
  • Caregivers
  • If you suspect any risk exposure to the bacteria

Diagnosis of Gonorrhea

Testing for the disease can be in two areas. If you have any indication of gonorrhea symptoms, you can visit the hospital for checking. At the clinic, the doctor will start by inquiring about your sexual data. Then, why you think you should have a test. After the formalities, the doctor will proceed for a physical examination for any indications.

Gonorrhea testing depends on suspicion. There are four types of tests that you may have. These are testing for gonorrhea in the genitals, rectum, throat, and eye. Mostly, genital and anal testing is standard. The medical practitioner will collect samples from the affected area using a clinical swab. Some doctors will prefer a blood or urine sample. The laboratory test will single out any presence of the gonococcal bacteria. Depending on the outcome, the prescription will follow or not.

Some people prefer a home test kit for testing at their homes. This is available in most chemists and online platforms. The testing instructions are simple, and the results precise. If your results come back positive, then you can opt for a clinical confirmation.

Read More: Gonorreha Symptoms

Effects of Late Diagnosis

The late diagnosis of gonorrhea can cause severe damage to other body organs. Since it can take some time before it manifests in your body, you can quickly treat symptoms thinking of other ailments. Then the bacteria find a way into the bloodstream. This opportunistic disease goes into your liver, eyes, stomach, heart, and other vital organs.

Besides that, your reproductive organs will suffer irreparable damage. For women, you may experience loss of your fallopian tubes and uterus. In the case of pregnancy, you may have bouts of ectopic pregnancies or even pass the bacteria to the child. In men, your urethra may damage and end up with prostate malfunction. Other severe cases include loss of your testicles, erectile dysfunction, and getting HIV.

References

sahralth.sa.gov.au

Syphilis

Syphilis information

This sexually contagious disease spreads by the bacteria scientifically known as Treponema pallidum. It is a disease that is making a comeback in many regions where the prevalence was down. Due to its nature, it is the women that inhibit the bacteria for longer before they show any signs. Nonetheless, there is a need for men to have some screening campaigns. Women have mandatory testing during their antenatal visits. The problem with men is it may take years to feel any signs. In the meantime, they are still active in sexual matters. Eventually, they end up infecting several people before finding out their status.

Clinical Stages of Syphilis

There are four medical stages of syphilis

  • Primary
  • Secondary
  • Latent
  • Tertiary

The first two stages are more visible than the latter two, as you will find out. Generally, the first manifestation is usually a painless sore around the infected area. This may be in your genitals, rectum, or mouth. The sore or chancre in medical terms disappears after a while. Since it does not cause any discomfort, many people may not raise the alarm.

Primary

It commences about two weeks after exposure to the bacteria. Some people may stay for a longer period without the initial sore.

Secondary

It is the time when sever discomfort starts to come in. In other people, the rashes and sores may include

  • Headaches
  • Swelling of lymph nodes
  • Fever
  • Fatigue

If you do not receive the right diagnosis and treatment, the disease goes to the next stage. If you manage the symptoms, they may go away and continue suffering from the disease.

Latent

It is commonly known as the hiding stage of syphilis. During this time, the disease remains passive in its manifestation. Sadly, the latent stage may take years to enter the last stage.

Tertiary

Few people reach this devastating stage. At this stage, most of your organs are damaged. Symptoms like blindness, heart failure, mental illness, stroke, and defective spinal cord are common.

Read More: Syphilis symptoms

Diagnosis

You may go for a clinical test or opt for the home test kit. It is preferable to visit a specialist, but due to stigma, many go for the self-test kit. Samples of your blood and affected areas go for lab testing. At the clinic, the doctor may request you to have extra venereal disease tests to ascertain the extent of your exposure. In all the two scenarios, you will have authentic results.

Get tested: Right Sign Syphilis Test

Get tested: One Step Syphilis Test

Treatment

Depending on the results, the doctor will discuss with you the next course of action. In most cases, the prescription is a combination of antibiotics. If the damage is severe, the medication will not reverse the situation. But will help clear the bacteria from the system and prevent further health risks.

Read More: Modern treatment of syphilis

References

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2019/4562385/

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/05/160511154209.htm

Signs and Symptoms of Syphilis

Syphilis information

This is a sexually transmitted disease that affects the genital and spreads to other parts of the body organs. There are no apparent signs of this disease as it manifests in stages. Usually, one can have the bacteria for many months or even years before noticing anything. This aspect of discreetness is what makes syphilis spread widely. In essence, the clinical signs depend on which stage one is in the disease. Notably, there are four stages.

  • Primary stage
  • Secondary stage
  • Latent (hidden) stage
  • Tertiary (late) stage

Primary Stage

The symptoms of syphilis can incubate in your body for up to 3 months after exposure. In the initial stages, you can develop some discomfort in your lymph nodes. In most cases, the swelling of the lymph nodes does not last for long. Eventually, it disappears. Visibly, you will notice some painless sores on your skin or the entry spot of the bacteria. If the sore develops inside your genitals, you may never notice any anomalies. About half of the people under exposure to the bacteria develop the chancre or sore during this stage.

Secondary Stage

It may take weeks or months for the secondary signs to come out after the initial sores. It is not a must that you have the signs right away. Some start noticing the manifestations after years. Nevertheless, you will still infect others when you do practice safe sex. Some of the symptoms include

  • Reddish-brown sores after skin rashes
  • Ulcer sores in your mouth, genitals, and anus
  • Swelling of your lymph glands
  • Fever and headaches
  • Fatigue and muscle aches
  • Weight loss

These symptoms may disappear and come back later. But it is rare for people to proceed from this stage. Most signs trigger a visit to the doctor.

Latent Stage

This is the stage where the bacteria become passive in your body. You may never develop any signs for years, yet still harboring the disease. Similarly, you may continue transmitting the bacteria to unsuspecting partners.

Tertiary Stage

When the symptoms reappear at this stage, most of the body organs are suffering from the bacteria. This can be way after even a decade. Though there are several signs of this stage, the main categories are

  • Gummatous syphilis
  • Neuro syphilis
  • Cardiovascular syphilis

The combination of the three can manifest symptoms including

  • Brain damage
  • Stroke
  • Inflammation of the spinal nerves
  • Deafness
  • Dementia
  • Heart diseases
  • Damage of the blood vessels
  • Personality changes

Read More: Syphilis symptoms

Read More: Syphilis Overview

Signs in Children

Sometimes the mother may pass the bacteria to her infant during delivery. When that happens, the baby may develop these signs

  • Groin rashes
  • Bone disfiguring
  • Swelling of glands
  • Brain dysfunction
  • Painless sores on the feet and hands

In children, syphilis is fatal. Since their immunity is still developing, the bacteria thrive in the body, causing damage quickly. 

References

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5809176/

http://www.health.gov.za/index.php/131-diseases/286-syphilis

Signs and Symptoms of HIV and AIDS

HIV information

People can feel completely healthy for years before they even realize they are infected with HIV. Sometimes it may take ten years before the symptoms show up. Which is why regular testing is important for anyone who suspects they have been exposed to the dangerous virus.

This includes individuals who have had unprotected intercourse or anyone who has shared needles or syringes when taking drugs. Adequate treatment is crucial for managing the symptoms.

Since the symptoms of the virus can vary from person to person, it is very hard to generalize it. That’s why the virus has been divided into three stages, each with its own symptoms and characteristics.

  1. Stage 1 – Acute HIV
  2. Stage 2 – HIV Dormancy
  3. Stage 3 – AIDS

Read More: HIV and AIDS

The Symptoms of HIV Typical for the First Stage (Acute HIV)

Based on statistics, 80% of the people with HIV during the first couple of weeks, experience symptoms that feel very much like the flu. This stage will begin 4 or 6 weeks after the individual has been infected. At this stage, the body will mobilize the entire immune system to fight the virus. As a result, the symptoms can be the following:

  • Diarrhea
  • Exhaustion
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Pain in the muscles and joints
  • Sore throat
  • Swollen and tender lymph nodes
  • Upper body rash
  • Vomiting
  • Weak muscles

For many, these are not significant symptoms, which is why many people ignore them. If you believe in having been in contact with someone carrying the virus, it’s best to get tested.

The Symptoms of HIV Typical for the Second Stage (HIV Dormancy)

According to statistics, the second stage of HIV can last more than ten years. But, the biggest issue for this particular stage is that most people don’t even have any symptoms. As a result, they can unknowingly pass the virus to someone else.

As the virus progresses, it will deteriorate the immune system affecting all the white blood cells that help the body fend of viruses. In the end, the system will be more susceptible to various diseases, infections, and bacteria.

To monitor the second stage, blood samples are important. They can help analyze the T-helper and white blood cells count in the system. Once the number of these cells falls to a certain level, the third stage begins.

The Symptoms of HIV Typical for the Third Stage (AIDS)

Based on recent statistics, 17,803 people in the U.S. were diagnosed with stage 3 HIV, known as AIDS. Thirty-three of them were children not older than 13, while 4,308 were females, both adolescents, and adults; the rest were males.

This stage begins when the immune system of the infected individual has been destroyed. Even the slightest and insignificant infections can be fatal. Some of the symptoms may include:

  • Bleeding
  • Bruising
  • Constant exhaustion
  • Extreme and unexpected weight loss
  • Fungal infections (vagina, throat, mouth)
  • Lengthy periods of fever (more than ten days)
  • Prolonged and severe diarrhea
  • Soft and swollen and lymph nodes on the groin and neck
  • Sweating during the night
  • Wheezing

Read More: HIV Modern Treatment

References

https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/stds-hiv-safer-sex/hiv-aids/what-are-symptoms-hivaids

https://www.healthline.com/health/hiv-aids/symptoms-men

https://www.avert.org/about-hiv-aids/symptoms-stages

https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/statistics/overview/index.html

Signs and Symptoms of Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea information

Gonorrhea is the most common venereal disease in the world. It is a bacteria that cause gonorrhea to transmit through unsafe sex or to come into contact with genital fluids, and this bacterium contain the disease. It is noteworthy, that women have a higher tolerance for the disease than men.

Therefore it is less likely for women to manifest signs of the disease than men, something you should keep in mind.

Vulnerable group

The vulnerable group in this instance is persons with exposure to unprotected sex, people with multiple sex partners, and furthermore drug addicts sharing intravenous needles.

These persons should have regular gonorrhea tests to contain any possible infection.

Clinical Signs in Men

The signs of the disease in men and women differ due to the difference in anatomy and tolerance.

In men, the symptoms may come after a few weeks of infection, and pain while urinating, and is a clear indication of gonorrhea. But should not be the decider of diagnosis. After some time, other manifestations come out.

Symptoms in men

  • Constant urge to urinate
  • Milky pus oozing from the penis
  • Inflammation of the testicles
  • Painful swelling of the penis
  • Redness color of the penis
  • And sometimes a sore throat

Clinical Signs in Women

Women have a low manifestation of the disease, because it is common for women to have urinary tract illnesses. Therefore, when the symptoms of gonorrhea come out, women can easily confuse it with vaginal yeast and other several bacterial infections, common to women. Nevertheless, the common gonorrhea symptoms are:

  • Unusual vaginal discharge
  • Constant urge to urinate
  • Pain or itchy feeling when urinating
  • Heavy menses
  • Fever
  • Pelvic pain
  • Sore throat
  • Pain when having sex

Read More: Gonorrhea general information

Gonorrhea in Other Parts of the Body

If you do go not seek treatment, the bacteria may spread to infect other body parts. Primarily, gonorrhea attacks any body part with a mucous membrane. Some of those include the rectum the throat, and the eyes.

The Rectum

Cases of spreading of gonorrhea through anal sex are rampant, and you should not ignore the risk. The riskof getting gonorrhea is more common in gay communities and heterosexuals engaging in anal sex. Symptoms of anal gonorrhea include:

  • Pain in the anus
  • Itchy feeling around the anus
  • Inflammation in the rectum

Read More: Gonorrhea in the Anus and Rectum

Throat

Practicing oral sex with a person infected with gonorrhea is an exposure to the disease. The gonococcal bacterium can infect your throat through the saliva, and many of the symptoms resemble common fever, cold and the flu. When this happens, your body displays these signs:

  • Fever
  • Swelling of your lymph glands
  • Sore and hoarse throat
  • Fever and headaches

The Eye

The contact of the gonococcal bacterium with the eyes brings about gonorrhea of the eye. It is not common, yet the most damaging. The disease damages the cornea and optical nerves, thus causing blindness. Some of the signs are:

  • Redness of the eye
  • Thick sticky discharge from the eye
  • Poor vision

Read More: Gonorrhea in the Eye

Read More: Testing and Diagnosis of Gonorrhea

References

https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-019-4035-y

https://www.gardp.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/STI_Gonorrhea_Strategy_Proposal.pdf