STDs Symptoms in Men

STDs Symptoms in Men Image

Various symptoms are expected to develop due to STDs, and it is important for every man to keep these symptoms in mind. That is why in the following article we will briefly discuss the most common STDs and their symptoms in men. 

The most common STDs and their symptoms in men

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a bacterial infection of the genital tract that can be transmitted through vaginal, anal, and oral unprotected sex. Chlamydia usually goes unnoticed there are very few to no symptoms showing. In fact, it has been estimated that around 25-50% of the male patients with Chlamydia experience no symptoms whatsoever. And the ones that do, usually struggle with:

  • Swollen testicles
  • Painful urination
  • Penile discharge

The good news is that Chlamydia is easily treated with the use of antibiotics. However, repetitive infections are possible and quite common, which is why past patients are advised towards protected sex and regular testing for Chlamydia. 

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

HPV is one of the most common STDs known to men and women all around the world. The most obvious reason to get infected with this difficult virus is of course, through unprotected sexual contact. Men who get infected with HPV usually do not develop any symptoms right away. Some of them might develop some symptoms months or years after the initial infection. The most characteristic symptom of HPV is genital warts which develop when oral or anal sex is listed as the main reason. Otherwise, oral warts are expected to develop.

When it comes to HPV, it is better to prevent it than to treat it. That is why there is a vaccine that anybody can get as a way to protect themselves against HPV. Of course, protected sex is another valid prevention method not only for HPV but for all STDs in general. HPV, if it does not show any symptoms, can resolve on its own without any treatment. However, if there are symptoms present, then you definitely need to visit your doctor.

Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is another bacterial infection that can be transmitted through vaginal, anal, and oral sex, thus affecting the urethra, anus, and throat. Gonorrhea in men rarely causes any symptoms to develop. However, when they do, the following symptoms are expected to develop:

  • Painful urination
  • White, yellow, or green penile discharge that usually occurs one to fourteen days after the individual has been infected with the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Pain that is felt in the testicles
  • Itching and soreness in the area of the anus
  • Bloody discharge from the anus
  • Skin rash
  • Painful, swollen glands in the throat

Gonorrhea is also treated with the use of antibiotics. Once again, past patients are advised towards safe, protected sex and regular testing. They also need to be explained the increasing rise of antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea, which will make treatment more difficult in the future.

Genital herpes

Herpes is an infection due to the hepatitis simplex virus (HSV). There are two types of hepatitis, of which type 2 is always transmitted through unprotected sex and leads to the development of genital hepatitis. The symptoms of genital herpes in men include:

  • Painful blisters in the genital area
  • Burning and tingling sensations around the blisters
  • Loss of appetite 
  • Muscle aches
  • Fever
  • Swollen lymph nodes

When it comes to herpes, there are some general methods that can be used to treat the momentary outbreak; however, future outbreaks are expected to happen. Unfortunately, there is no way to prevent any future outbreaks. 

AIDS 

AIDS is a life-threatening disease that is caused by an infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. HIV can be transmitted through a variety of ways, including unprotected sexual contact with a person infected with HIV or who is a carrier of HIV, contaminated needles, from mother to child during pregnancy, etc. This virus attacks your immune system, causing mild to more severe infections to develop in your body. Other than that, upon getting infected, there are some general symptoms that can be experienced including a sore throat, headaches, skin rash, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes. It can take up to 10 years for the infection and disease themselves to be diagnosed. Prevention is key when it comes to AIDS and HIV.

Sexually Transmitted Human Papillomavirus (HPV) In Africa

Sexually Transmitted Human Papillomavirus (HPV) In Africa Image

HPV, or human papillomavirus, is a growing concern. Recent findings suggest a spike in the incidence of HPV diagnosis in the African region. Initial symptoms of the infection are often overlooked. This increases the patient’s risk of developing more serious complications. Currently, a concerning complication includes cervical cancer. 

HPV Incidence Rates In Africa

HPV incidence is increasing according to several reports. Some areas of Africa also seem to be at a higher risk for the infection than others. The highest incidence of HPV is reported in Eastern Africa, with an epidemiology rating of 20.3% among female citizens. In Africa, when all areas are considered, the prevalence of HPV is 18.7% among African women. An estimated 372 million women over the age of 15 in Africa are also considered to be at risk for cervical cancer. 

Recognizing HPV Symptoms Early

Patients who are able to recognize early symptoms of HPV have a higher chance of preventing its complications. For most people, genital warts will be the first symptom to appear. Some people also develop general warts when they are infected with HPV. Two other types of warts can also affect the patient – these include flat and plantar warts. 

The condition can also lead to upper respiratory lesions. Some people develop oral lesions. Cervical cancer is another growing concern related to HPV. There are other cancers that have also been associated with HPV infection. These include cancers affecting the genitals, upper respiratory tract, mouth, and the patient’s anus. 

Preventing HPV

Prevention strategies are required to reduce the incidence of HPV in Africa. There are several prevention techniques that may yield effective results. This includes providing patients easier access to the HPV vaccine. The vaccine is able to provide a significant reduction in the risk of being infected with the STI. 

Patients also need to be made aware of the benefits that come with practicing safe sex. The use of a condom may also further help to reduce the risk of spreading the HPV infection. Patients should also try to minimize the number of different sexual partners they have. 

Treatment For HPV

HPV has no specific cure, which is why prevention is so important. Warts that developed can be treated. A salicylic acid solution is often used to treat these warts. Imiquimod is another topical treatment that may be used to treat warts caused by HPV. 

There are certain surgical options that patients may opt for too. This includes cryotherapy and electrocautery. Surgical removal of the wart is another option that could be considered. 

Conclusion

HPV is considered a serious problem in several regions of Africa. Growing concern about the disease has been reported by the WHO and other organizations. Along with an increase in HPV, researchers note a concerning the prevalence of cervical cancer among women in the country. Patients should be educated about early symptoms and take appropriate action on their side. 

References

https://hpvcentre.net/statistics/reports/XFX.pdf

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hpv-infection/symptoms-causes/syc-20351596

Rwanda Being the First Country to Possibly Wipe Out Cervical Cancer

Rwanda and sexually transmitted infections

With cervical cancer being one of the most common causes of death all around the world, especially in high burden countries such as Rwanda, the people in Rwanda have made a great step forward, focusing on wiping out cervical cancer altogether. With the techniques and methods that they have developed over the years, the rates of cervical cancer have declined, offering their residents an opportunity to live a healthier, longer life.

Rwanda and the possibility to completely wipe out cervical cancer

Cervical cancer has represented a potentially life-threatening health issue for the longest time now, accounting for more than 68 000 new cancer cases in Africa. Every 23 out of 100 000 women is estimated to die from cervical cancer, with every 34 out of 100 000 women being affected by it. These are some frightening numbers.

Most cases of cervical cancer are caused by HPV (Human Papillomavirus), with HPV-16 and HPV-18 being the two most common types of HPV out of the 100 different ones that are most frequently leading to cervical cancer.

Read more: 1 in 9 men has oral HPV

Being the most common type of cancer in their country, the people of Rwanda, Africa have decided to put a stop to it. It was 2010 when Rwanda first decided to make wiping out cervical cancer a health priority, agreeing on a partnership with the pharmaceutical company called Merck that was supposed to deliver the much-needed HPV vaccines and with that, contribute to the preventing HPV in the first place.

It wasn’t easy to raise awareness

It took the authorities in Rwanda a long time to raise the much-needed awareness and convince the parents to agree on getting their children vaccinated. There are different reasons as to why that was the case. While some deny to talk about reproductive health and think of it as a taboo, others believe that by vaccinating their children, they ought to become promiscuous in the near future, engaging in frequent sexual activity with multiple sexual partners, thus exposing themselves to the other common STDs.

But since then, the authorities in Rwanda have succeeded at changing more and more people’s opinions, helping to protect younger lives, thus becoming potentially the first country to wipe cervical cancer.  A lot of things have changed since Rwanda first decided to focus on eliminating cervical cancer. Nowadays, they are offering the newest vaccine called Gardasil 9, which works by preventing nine different types of HPV.

But it is not only their prevention method that has improved over the years. Today, Rwanda also focuses on proper screening and managing the cases of cervical cancer, offering support along the way. They are now offering proper immunization for other dangerous diseases such as rubella, polio, and measles, helping the lifespan of the people of Rwanda to double between 1995 and 2011.

Effective prevention was key

Since 2010, which is when the authorities in Rwanda first decided to make a great change in the lives of their female residents, the rates of cervical cancer and HPV infections have successfully declined. It was all about effective prevention through immunization that has been made available and offered to everyone, in addition to offering proper management and treatment that has helped increase the life expectancy of the people of Rwanda.

References

https://www.afro.who.int/news/cervical-cancer-common-amongst-african-women

https://travelnoire.com/rwanda-could-be-the-first-country-to-eliminate-cervical-cancer

https://edition.cnn.com/2019/05/30/health/rwanda-first-eliminate-cervical-cancer-africa-partner/index.html