Implant Protect Women From HIV

Implant Protect Women From HIV Image

 HIV is a highly prevalent sexually transmitted infection. People who are infected with HIV have no way of curing the infection. There are effective strategies that may help with the management of HIV, but prevention should always be a priority. Through years of research, scientists have developed numerous strategies that help to assist in reducing the prevalence of HIV infections. One of the most recent advancements come in the form of an implant. The implant seems to assist in reducing the risk of HIV in the female population. 

The Prevalence Of HIV Among The Female Population

HIV is prevalent among the worldwide female population. In some countries, however, there does seem to be a higher risk and prevalence of the HIV infection, compared to other countries. Data from a publication in the Journal of AIDS Research and Therapy provide more insight into the prevalence of the condition in specified populations. 

According to the research paper, about one-third of all cases related to HIV infections are linked to the sub-Saharan Africa region. The paper also explains that the current prevalence of HIV among the female population in this region is considered unacceptable. Even though many advancements have been made in terms of preventing HIV infections, the condition still remains a prevalent STD among this particular population – and many other populations in underdeveloped countries too. 

How An Implant May Prevent HIV In Women

New strategies are constantly being developed to help reduce the prevalence of HIV among the worldwide population. A new strategy focuses primarily on women, due to the high vulnerability often noted among the female population. 

The new strategy comes in the form of a vaginal implant. The implant is administered by a licensed physician and will remain present in the vagina of the female patient. Once implanted, the small medical device will focus on helping the woman’s risk of being infected with HIV. 

The vaginal implant is equipped with a special drug. The drug puts the T cells that are found in the genital tract of the female patient in a “quiescent” state. This means the T cells become less active – leading to a reduced productive state for the virus that causes HIV infections.

Researchers have found that when T cells in the vagina are placed into this type of resting state, it may potentially block the HIV virus early in its life cycle

The New Implant Might Be The Solution

A new implant may be the key to reducing the risk of HIV infections among women. HIV does not only pose a risk to a woman but during pregnancy, the condition is often carried over to the unborn child. Reducing the risk through this new implant will play an important role in the preventative strategy that the world is implementing. 

References

https://aidsrestherapy.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1742-6405-10-30

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2410-3_26

HIV And Cancer – What Patients Need To Know

HIV cancer

Each year, the HIV virus infects more than one million people around the world, with an estimated 1.7 million individuals infected in the year 2018. Africa accounts for quite a large percentage of adults and children that are infected with this virus. In the Eastern and Southern regions of Africa, an estimated 57% of adults have been infected with HIV.

A large number of those individuals who have been infected with this particular virus have not yet been tested – and do not realize the risks that they are facing with their general well-being. One particular risk that needs to be addressed is the fact that there is an increased risk of cancer among individuals who suffer an HIV infection.

The Increased Risk Of Cancer Caused By HIV

A common question asked by those infected with the HIV virus is whether or not they are truly at a higher risk of cancer. The short answer is yes – there is actually a significant increase observed in the risk of cancer among HIV sufferers. It is, however, important to note that the risk is only increased for a specific number of cancerous diseases.

When a patient develops cancer after they have been infected with HIV, the condition will usually be referred to as HIV-associated cancer.

The most important types of HIV-associated cancers that patients do need to be wary of include:

  • Cervical cancer (only applies to female patients who are infected)
  • Kaposi sarcoma (a type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is considered aggressive and dangerous)
  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defining cancers, also called AIDs-defining cancers

The increased risk of these cancers among individuals with HIV is defined as follow:

  • An HIV positive individual is 500 times more likely to develop Kaposi sarcoma than those who are not infected.
  • There is a 12x increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma among individuals with HIV.
  • Women diagnosed with HIV are also three times as likely to develop cervical cancer compared to those female patients who are not infected with the virus.

In addition to considering these HIV-associated cancers, there also seems to be an increased risk of other cancers among these patients:

  • Liver cancer
  • Anal cancer
  • Oral cavity cancer
  • Pharynx cancer
  • Lung cancer

In addition to considering these factors, it is important to note that when the HIV virus is accompanied by certain conditions or complications, there is a further increase in the patient’s risk of developing certain cancers.

One example is Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. This disease is also called human herpesvirus 8. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus, along with HIV, also puts a person at a higher risk of both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Patients with HIV and infection with either hepatitis B or C are also at an increased risk of developing cancer in their liver.

Using testing kits, such as those provided by Ghana Medicals, can help a person detect the presence of HIV at an early stage – which might assist in reducing the risk of cancer when appropriate treatment is initiated.

Weak immune system

People who are infected with the virus that causes HIV to have a weak immune system and have also been found to be at a significantly higher risk of developing certain types of cancer. Those individuals who are affected by certain complications associated with HIV are at an even higher risk of developing these cancers.

References

https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/overview/data-and-trends/global-statistics
https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/infectious-agents/hiv-fact-sheet#r2

How Big Of A Role Does Migration Play In HIV Transmission In South Africa?

South Africa and HIV

Identifying the risk factors for HIV and STD has had a positive impact on the prevention and treatment of these serious diseases. But is migration one of those risk factors? Should we be considered about the millions of people who are migrating across South Africa and spreading HIV and other STDs? A 2003 study has investigated this very same question, so let’s find out the answer, shall we?

The role of migration in HIV transmission among those living in South Africa

Africa is one of the countries with the highest STD prevalence in the world, being one of the high burden countries as it is. A study published in 2016 has revealed that there are approximately 36.7 million people infected with HIV on an international level, with 2.1 million of those living in Africa alone. But it is not only adults that are affected by this frightening disease. Over the years, it has been suggested that 91% of the HIV-infected children are living in Africa, as well.

And it is not only HIV that we need to be worried about since there are many common STDs such as gonorrhea and syphilis that are also frequently diagnosed in Africa as well. Despite the fact that they are curable as compared to HIV, they still present an economic burden and a factor that reduces the quality of life for these individuals.

Researching common factors

Researchers have made an effort to discover the most common factors that contribute to the high HIV and STD rates in Africa. It has been revealed that people living in Africa are usually unaware of the risks that these dangerous diseases pose, but studies have also revealed that there have been many people who are very well aware of these risks and still fail to get regular check-ups and proper treatment when needed. For example, a study published in 2019 has revealed that it is the feelings of shame and fear that are preventing these people from asking for help, which is why they decide to live with the consequences in silence.

But the search for the factors that contribute to the high HIV rates has begun as early as 2003 when a study has been published in the Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Researchers have conducted the study to investigate if migration plays any role in the spreading of the HIV infection.

For the purposes of the research, 196 migrant men and 130 of their rural partners, including 64 nonmigrant men and 98 rural women, have been included in the study. The male migrants have been recruited at work in two different urban centers with their rural partners being invited to participate as well, while the nonmigrant couples have been recruited for comparison. Questionnaires and blood samples for HIV detection have been used to determine the presence of HIV infection in both migrant and nonmigrant couples.

What the study revealed was that migration is one of the high-risk factors for HIV infection, next to practicing unprotected sexual intercourse and having lived in four or more places during a lifetime. For women, being the partner of a migrant man has not been considered to be a significant risk factor for HIV. This draws attention to proper workplace interventions to prevent further spreading of HIV and other common STDs.

Conclusion

Over the years, researchers have been able to identify any high-risk factors for HIV and other common STDs. With that, they have been able to raise awareness and work to reduce the high HIV and STD rates on an international level. One of those high-risk factors for HIV has been migration, especially in South Africa. With that, we are one step closer to causing a significant decline in the STD and HIV prevalence and preserving people’s lives.

References

https://www.amfar.org/worldwide-aids-stats/

https://www.dosomething.org/us/facts/11-facts-about-hiv-africa#fnref1

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/authors?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0223414

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/10918165_The_Impact_of_Migration_on_HIV-1_Transmission_in_South_Africa

HIV in Kids

HIV information

HIV does not only affect adults. Unfortunately, it does not choose according to sex, age, race, or any factor, which results in affecting anyone at any point in time, at any place around the world. Still, there are some groups that are affected more commonly than others, and young children are not excluded from this group. HIV is quite common among kids as well, causing their quality of life to significantly decrease over time while being responsible for millions of children dying because of it.

Causes of HIV in kids

In most cases of HIV in children, we are looking at HIV being transmitted during pregnancy from the infected mother to her baby in the womb. In a lot of cases as well, the virus has been transmitted during the period of breastfeeding. HIV and syphilis are the two STDs that can be easily transmitted during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

That is why it is usual to get tested for both HIV and syphilis during the first visit to the doctor’s office once a pregnancy has been discovered. If there is a case of HIV or syphilis, early diagnosis and treatment greatly lower the risk of the chance of the virus to be transmitted to the baby.

Sadly, but true – A lot of children have been infected with HIV as a result of sexual abuse or rape. Young female children that are traditionally married to older men, often get infected with HIV and later transmit it to their baby. In fact, the younger the child is, the higher the chances to get infected with HIV, and other STDs for that matter are. In addition, adolescents that engage in unprotected sexual intercourse of any kind, including oral, vaginal, and anal sex, are also exposed to the risk of HIV and AIDS.

How common is HIV in kids?

In 2016, 2.1 million of them children under the age of 16 on an international level, were diagnosed with HIV. Of those, it is suggested that 91% are living in Africa, resulting in about 3.2 million children infected with HIV in 2013. Now with the majority of HIV-infected children living in Africa, AIDS has been considered to be one of the leading causes of death among adolescents in this country.

In most cases, it has been their mothers who have transmitted the HIV infection during pregnancy or breastfeeding due to the lack of awareness, failing to notice the present symptoms, and asking for help in time.

Treating HIV in kids

Although there is no cure for HIV, there is a wide variety of medications that can be used to support a healthy condition and prevent HIV from progressing to HIV. Usually, a combination of medications is being used to treat the present symptoms and prevent them from progressing in the future.

The main goals of any HIV patient are to keep the number of CD4 cells as high as possible and reduce the viral load of HIV. In order to do that, along with the proper treatment, regular blood tests are done in order to measure the levels of CD4 cells in the body.

Millions are affected around the world

Affecting millions of young children around the world, with most of them living in Africa and other high burden countries, HIV represents a dangerous and life-threatening virus that needs to be prevented the best that it can. With infected mothers transmitting their HIV infection to their baby during pregnancy, and the infection spreading through unprotected sexual intercourse, it is easy to understand how we have such a big number of affected people, and sadly children, living all around the world.

References

https://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-social-issues/key-affected-populations/children#footnote7_yfxramp
https://www.amfar.org/worldwide-aids-stats/
https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/UNICEF_Annual_Report_2015_En.pdf

What Everyone Should Know About World AIDS Day

HIV information

Every year December 1 is marked as World AIDS Day around the globe and an opportunity to raise awareness of HIV/AIDS, inspire people to get tested, and encourage them to learn as much as they can about this widespread problem. But, you don’t have to wait for December 1 to learn about HIV. You should use every opportunity you have to get informed. Scroll down to see what everyone should know about HIV.

What is HIV?

Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV is a virus that damages a person’s immune system, especially CD4 cells (also known as T cells). Over time, especially when not managed properly, HIV destroys so many cells that the immunity is unable to protect the body from diseases and infections.

HIV vs. AIDS

Most people think HIV and AIDS are the same things, but they are not. HIV is a virus, but AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a condition. Developing HIV can lead to AIDS. In other words, AIDS is stage 3 of HIV and develops when the virus has caused significant damage to the immune system. Not every person with HIV will develop AIDS.

How is HIV transmitted?

HIV is spread from one person to another through bodily fluids that include blood, semen, vaginal and rectal fluids, and breast milk. One person cannot get HIV through casual contact with an infected individual e.g., through a handshake.

What are the symptoms of HIV?

Within two to four weeks after HIV infection, a person may develop flu-like symptoms such as fever and chills, headache, rash, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes in the neck, and muscle or joint pain. These symptoms may last a few days, but in some people, they persist for several weeks. Symptoms are usually mild, and most people don’t even notice them.

As the virus marks progress, the swelling of the lymph nodes becomes more pronounced, and other symptoms worsen too.

Who is at risk of HIV?

Factors that increase the risk of HIV include:

  • Having unprotected sex
  • Presence of STD
  • Use of intravenous drugs
  • Being an uncircumcised man

Is HIV curable?

Unfortunately, no! HIV is a lifelong problem. Scientists and doctors are trying to find a cure for HIV, and hopefully, in the near future, they will succeed. At this point, there are various treatments, such as antiretroviral therapy, to manage this condition and prevent complications or its progression to AIDS.

Prevalence of HIV

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 37.9 million people had HIV in 2018. In June 2019, 24.5 million people were accessing antiretroviral therapy. The prevalence of HIV is particularly high in sub-Saharan countries. This is partly due to low awareness of HIV, stigma associated with getting tested, and insufficient prevention campaigns.

HIV is still a global problem

Although the number of people with HIV has decreased over the decades, millions of people, including children, still have it. This lifelong condition can be managed with antiretroviral therapy that prevents complications and progression to AIDS.

Read more: HIV in Ghana is on the rise

Read More: HIV in Nigeria

References

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hiv-aids/symptoms-causes/syc-20373524

https://www.healthline.com/health/hiv-aids

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hiv-aids

New Survey Results Indicate That Nigeria Has an HIV Prevalence of 1.4%

Nigeria and HIV

According to a study conducted by UNIAIDS and the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), about 1.9 million people are living with HIV in Nigeria. However, the federal government of Nigeria has released a result that indicates an HIV prevalence of 1.4%.

Read More: HIV in Ghana is on the rise

This is contrary to the previous estimates of 2.8%. During the launching of the Revised National HIV and AIDS Strategic Framework (2019-2021) held in Abuja recently, Muhammadu Buhari, the President of Nigeria, acknowledged that there are now fewer people living with HIV in the country than before. This is a clear indication that the country has improved drastically with preventive measures and response to the epidemic in recent years.

Optimism of possibly ending AIDS in Nigeria by 2030

The president also expressed optimism that the end of AIDS by 2030 might become a possibility for Nigeria. He went ahead to urge all stakeholders and relevant agencies not to relent in their effort to bring the epidemic to an abrupt end.

Mike Sidibe, who is the Executive Director of UNAIDS, acknowledged the new estimates as a welcomed development. He went further to express satisfaction about the country’s present disposition towards HIV and AIDS. That it will allow the country to reach out to more people living with the virus, he also expressed optimism that the end of the epidemic is drawing nearer come 2030.

New estimates

According to the new estimates, there are more women (15-49 years) living with HIV than men. The national prevalence is 1.4% among adults between the ages of 15 and 49 years. HIV prevalence in children is about 0.2% of the total population of people living with the virus. However, several NGO’s and agencies have risen to stop the spread of HIV among children and infants.

With the new estimates, it is expected that the federal government can better invest in preventive measures and conduct effective planning for the control and prevention of HIV and AIDS in the country. More so, some populations will be controlled and limited to the barest minimum, such as female sex workers. When the virus is heavily suppressed, the rate of transmission through sex will be significantly reduced.

The Minister of Health

In a speech delivered by the Minister of Health, Isaac F. Adewole, he opined that people living with the virus need to have access to healthcare and retroviral drugs to achieve a high degree of suppression. He also said that pregnant women should have access to antenatal care and undergo proper testing for the virus during each pregnancy. “Early detection is the key to controlling the spread of the epidemic. Let’s ensure the next generation is free from HIV,” he concluded.

The new data generated are more accurate than the previous estimates because they are based on an enhanced methodology and an expanded surveillance system. Over the years, the number of facilities and agencies responsible for HIV prevention has tripled. The number of mother-to-child prevention centers has increased drastically. This has led to an increase in the response rate to the epidemic.

HIV in Ghana is on the rise

HIV information

Ghana has been struggling to reduce the number of HIV infections for years. In this region, there are around 150,000 people with HIV. In 2014, the HIV prevalence rate was recorded at 1.37%, with the lowest rates registered in the north region of Ghana, and the highest in the east.

To control this epidemic, the government appointed the Ghana AIDS Commission. This commission is in charge of handling the treatment, awareness, and education for HIV and AIDS-related health issues.

But, despite the increased awareness and access to HIV treatment, this disease in the Sub-Saharan African region is still one of the most common causes of death. Statistics from 2017 show that HIV was, in fact, responsible for 13,878 deaths.

The Rates of HIV Infections in Ghana Keep Increasing

There is a drastic increase in individuals infected with HIV, according to the Ghana AIDS Commission.

Based on the 2018 statistics, there were 19,931 newly recorded HIV infections, stated the commission in a most recent announcement in 2019, December 1. Their announcement was released to the community through media, mosques, and churches.

3,317 of the newly infected were young children between the ages of 0 and 14, while the rest of the 16,614 were adults.

The most common ways of transmission for the 334,717 already living with HIV, are through:

  • Unprotected sexual intercourse
  • Using various unsterilized sharp instruments.
  • mother-to-child transmission (MTCT)

Statistics from 2016 show the same results, the number of newly infected individuals from 2010 to 2016 increased by a staggering 21%. The most infected were those between the ages of 15 and 24, which are 45% of all the infected.

While Ghana has successfully managed to reduce other common STIs infections by 16%, HIV still remains a serious problem.

What Is Being Done to Control HIV in Ghana?

To ensure access to medicines for HIV treatment, the PEPFAR (The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief) has issued $23.7 million for AIDS and HIV treatment in Ghana. With the help of additional programs, PEPFAR has implemented a load of viral testing to prevent and control the spread of the infection in this region.

The Network of Persons living with AIDS and HIV in Ghana have been urging the government to boost their District Assemblies Common Fund to provide more funding for HIV and AIDS treatment.

A conference was held in May 2018 to propose new measures for controlling the HIV disease. Some of the leading institutions that participated in the conference were the CDC – Atlanta’s Centers for Disease Control and the U.S. HIV Research Program. At the conference, the government stated they would assess implications by 2020 in an effort to end AIDS and HIV by 2030.

HIV infections are still a pressing matter for Ghana

HIV infections are still a pressing matter for Ghana. This epidemic has forced the region to start working on implementing a series of programs and policies to stop the spread of the disease and better-manage the infection. More time is necessary, however, to see the full extent of these changes and whether they will have any positive results.

References

https://www.myjoyonline.com/lifestyle/2019/November-29th/hiv-infections-on-the-rise-19000-new-cases-recorded-in-2018-ghana-aids-commission.php

http://www.healthdata.org/sites/default/files/files/images/news_release/2019/HIV%20Press%20Release%20-%20GHANA.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV/AIDS_in_Ghana

https://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/Government-raises-concern-as-HIV-infections-increase-by-21-650173

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6527824/

Signs and Symptoms of HIV and AIDS

HIV information

People can feel completely healthy for years before they even realize they are infected with HIV. Sometimes it may take ten years before the symptoms show up. Which is why regular testing is important for anyone who suspects they have been exposed to the dangerous virus.

This includes individuals who have had unprotected intercourse or anyone who has shared needles or syringes when taking drugs. Adequate treatment is crucial for managing the symptoms.

Since the symptoms of the virus can vary from person to person, it is very hard to generalize it. That’s why the virus has been divided into three stages, each with its own symptoms and characteristics.

  1. Stage 1 – Acute HIV
  2. Stage 2 – HIV Dormancy
  3. Stage 3 – AIDS

Read More: HIV and AIDS

The Symptoms of HIV Typical for the First Stage (Acute HIV)

Based on statistics, 80% of the people with HIV during the first couple of weeks, experience symptoms that feel very much like the flu. This stage will begin 4 or 6 weeks after the individual has been infected. At this stage, the body will mobilize the entire immune system to fight the virus. As a result, the symptoms can be the following:

  • Diarrhea
  • Exhaustion
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Pain in the muscles and joints
  • Sore throat
  • Swollen and tender lymph nodes
  • Upper body rash
  • Vomiting
  • Weak muscles

For many, these are not significant symptoms, which is why many people ignore them. If you believe in having been in contact with someone carrying the virus, it’s best to get tested.

The Symptoms of HIV Typical for the Second Stage (HIV Dormancy)

According to statistics, the second stage of HIV can last more than ten years. But, the biggest issue for this particular stage is that most people don’t even have any symptoms. As a result, they can unknowingly pass the virus to someone else.

As the virus progresses, it will deteriorate the immune system affecting all the white blood cells that help the body fend of viruses. In the end, the system will be more susceptible to various diseases, infections, and bacteria.

To monitor the second stage, blood samples are important. They can help analyze the T-helper and white blood cells count in the system. Once the number of these cells falls to a certain level, the third stage begins.

The Symptoms of HIV Typical for the Third Stage (AIDS)

Based on recent statistics, 17,803 people in the U.S. were diagnosed with stage 3 HIV, known as AIDS. Thirty-three of them were children not older than 13, while 4,308 were females, both adolescents, and adults; the rest were males.

This stage begins when the immune system of the infected individual has been destroyed. Even the slightest and insignificant infections can be fatal. Some of the symptoms may include:

  • Bleeding
  • Bruising
  • Constant exhaustion
  • Extreme and unexpected weight loss
  • Fungal infections (vagina, throat, mouth)
  • Lengthy periods of fever (more than ten days)
  • Prolonged and severe diarrhea
  • Soft and swollen and lymph nodes on the groin and neck
  • Sweating during the night
  • Wheezing

Read More: HIV Modern Treatment

References

https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/stds-hiv-safer-sex/hiv-aids/what-are-symptoms-hivaids

https://www.healthline.com/health/hiv-aids/symptoms-men

https://www.avert.org/about-hiv-aids/symptoms-stages

https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/statistics/overview/index.html

Modern Treatment of HIV

HIV information

The first case of HIV was reported back in the early 80s. When the disease first came about, patients have a very minimal chance of survival.  Unfortunately, the disease still remains widespread – especially in Africa, where an estimated 25.7 million people are infected.

Nowadays, though, many patients of HIV can live a long and healthy life thanks to medication. The medication can control and mitigate some of the symptoms, but it does get rid of the disease.

Read More: HIV and AIDS

Drugs Used to Treat HIV

There are four primary medications used to treat HIV. Doctors usually prescribe a mix of these, the exact quantities varying from individual to individual.

  1. Reverse Transcriptase

This drug ensures that the HIV virus does not multiply by making copies of itself.

  • Protease Inhibitors

These inhibitors block enzyme protease within the HIV cells.

  • Integrase

HIV can integrate itself into a person’s DNA, making the patient a permanent carrier of HIV. This drug inhibits integrase, and the enzyme used to integrate the virus. By doing so, the medicine prevents the virus from spreading to other areas of the immune system.

  • CCR5 Inhibitors

CCR5 are receptors located on the membranes of white blood cells. The HIV virus uses them as gateways to attack and ingrain themselves within the cells. This medicine inhibits these receptors and prevents the virus from spreading more.

Read More: Signs and Symptoms of HIV and AIDS

Modern Combined Therapy

The HIV virus is particularly difficult to target because of its changing nature. The genetic makeup of the virus changes frequently, and thus, it’s easy for the virus to become resistant to medication.

To counter this problem, modern treatment methods make use of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART). This method involves doctors prescribing a mix of different messages, each with a particular dosage. South Africa is currently conducting its third-line HIV treatment program for people who are resistant to the first and second lines.

What’s important to note is that even if the medication works in tackling the effects of the virus, it will not completely cure it. The patient will still test positive for the virus and so can transmit it to others as well.

Side Effects of HIV Treatment

HIV treatment as some common side effects such as:

  • Headaches
  • Trouble Sleeping
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Mood Swings
  • Weight Gain

These are only some of the side effects patients may of the treatment face. Every case will vary from individual to individual. It is also typical for patients to have adverse reactions to medications when they begin their course. It’s likely that you will have to test out a few different combinations of medicines to see which one suits you best.

Read More: STD’s in Africa

What’s next?

Advances in science have now made it possible for patients of HIV to live long, healthy lives. In particular, Anti-Retroviral Therapy is a great method of treatment for patients today. Research in Ghana has also shown that it’s cheaper for patients in the long run.

References:

https://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/FullText/2017/10230/The_costs_of_HIV_treatment_and_care_in_Ghana.13.aspx

https://www.aidsmap.com/news/jan-2019/south-africa-reports-successful-third-line-hiv-treatment-programme

https://www.afro.who.int/health-topics/hivaids

HIV and AIDS

HIV information

HIV is a harmful virus that damages the entire immune system by killing the white blood cells responsible for fighting off infections. Eventually, the immune system will become weaker and prone to diseases, leaving the entire immune system impaired.

Based on the latest statistics from 2018, around 37.9 million people deal with AIDS/HIV around the world, 1.7 million of them are children younger than 15. Even though in the past, this virus was deadly, now, the life expectancy of a person with HIV is the same as those without the virus.

However, these effects can only be achieved with proper treatment and adequate medications.

Read More: Signs and Symptoms of HIV and AIDS

How is HIV Transmitted?

Specific fluids like semen, vaginal, rectal, seminal, blood, or breast milk can spread the virus. Here are the most common forms of transmission through these fluids.

During Sexual Intercourse

The main way of transmitting this virus is via intercourse. Plenty of bodily fluids will come in contact with the reproductive organs. During unprotected sex, the risk of the infection is the highest.

Injections

Anyone who uses needles, typically drug users, will exchange needles, syringes, or other equipment they use for injections. This is another way they can transmit the virus.

From a Mother to a Newborn Child

A woman with HIV can transmit the virus to her child while in labor or when pregnant. However, breastfeeding is another form of transmission that can be passed onto the child after it has been born since breast milk contains the virus. The chances of transmission are from 15%-45%.

Typical Symptoms Associated With HIV

HIV is categorized in different stages, three to be exact (acute, chronic, and AIDS). If a person avoids treatment for an extended amount of time, the symptoms will get gradually worse.

Some often mistake them for the flu and don’t get tested in time. According to statistics, out of more than a million people infected with HIV in the U.S., 14% of them didn’t get the right diagnosis because they were unaware they were infected.

As a result, it’s important to recognize the symptoms and seek help immediately. These are the most common HIV symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Pain in the muscles
  • Neck pain
  • Rash on the torso
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Sore throat

Read More: HIV Symptoms

Proper Diagnosis

It may take a month before HIV is detected for someone who has recently been infected. The tests for HIV are considered reliable; however, there are certain cases where they might show incorrect results. So, it’s paramount that people get tested multiple times to get a proper diagnosis.

Treatment

There are no medications, antibiotics, or any form of treatment that can completely cure the HIV virus. But, with the help of modern medicine, proper medications and therapy can help manage the condition, and aid individuals live a normal life as much as possible.

Read More: Modern Treatment of HIV

How to Prevent HIV

Using a condom during intercourse is the main way of protection, even during oral and anal intercourse. Different medicines are available for those who believe they might have been exposed to the infection. It’s a treatment that lasts four weeks and reduces the risk.

References

https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/overview/data-and-trends/global-statistics

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/17131.php

https://www.who.int/hiv/topics/mtct/en/

https://www.webmd.com/hiv-aids/understanding-aids-hiv-symptoms#1

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