All What You Need To Know About Chlamydia

All What You Need To Know About Chlamydia Image

Chlamydia is defined as a sexually transmitted bacterial infection that affects both men and women. The condition is caused by bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis. Men can get this STI in their urethra (inside of the penis), throat, and rectum while women can develop it in the cervix, rectum, and throat. 

Both men and women get infected by the bacteria and develop this STI through sexual contact only i.e. during oral, anal, or vaginal sexual intercourse with a person who is infected too. People who have already had chlamydia in the past can get re-infected if they have unprotected sex. 

Signs and Symptoms to watch out for

As mentioned above, Chlamydia can be asymptomatic, but in some cases, patients do experience different symptoms. Signs and symptoms of chlamydia appear within five to ten days after contracting the infection. 

Symptoms of Chlamydia in women are:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Bleeding between periods
  • Bleeding during sex
  • Burning sensation while urinating
  • Frequent need to urinate and discomfort while urinating 
  • Low-grade fever
  • Painful sexual intercourse 
  • Swelling in the vagina or around the anus 
  • Vaginal discharge in large quantities appears yellow with bad odor

Signs and symptoms of Chlamydia in men are:

  • Tender and swollen testicles 
  • Penile discharge (milky, watery, or pus)
  • Burning sensation and pain while urinating 
  • Itching and burning around the opening of the penis

Consequences of having Chlamydia 

Chlamydia is associated with a number of complications including a higher risk of getting other STDs. In addition, Chlamydia can cause obstruction and scarring in the fallopian tubes, which could make female patients infertile. 

Chlamydia is also associated with: 

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the uterus and fallopian tubes that cause fever and pelvic pain. Severe PIDs may require hospitalization. 
  • Prostatitis – men can deal with complications of Chlamydia too. For example, the infection can spread to the prostate gland and cause prostatitis which is indicated by symptoms such as lower back pain, fever and chills, painful urination, pain during sexual intercourse, and others.
  • Epididymitis – Chlamydia can affect epididymis (coiled tube beside each testicle) and cause infection.
  • Reactive arthritis – It’s also important to mention that people who have Chlamydia are at a higher risk of developing reactive arthritis or Reiter’s syndrome. Reactive arthritis usually affects joints, urethra, and eyes
  • Infections in newborns – pregnant women with Chlamydia may spread the infection to their baby too which can lead to eye infection and pneumonia 

When to see the doctor

If you’re a sexually active man or woman, it’s strongly recommended to see your doctor and get tested once a year. This is particularly important for women who are younger than 25 and people with multiple sex partners and who tend to engage in unprotected intercourse. Of course, it’s useful to consult the doctor if you suspect that you have Chlamydia and in case you experience the above-mentioned symptoms.

What further testing to do to check for ailments related to Chlamydia 

Due to a number of complications associated with Chlamydia, further tests may be useful. For example:

  • Ultrasound for diagnosis of PID
  • A laparoscopy that allows the doctor to view your pelvic organs
  • Blood tests for PID, prostatitis 
  • Imaging tests (CT scan, x-ray)

Everything You Need to Know About Chlamydia PCR

Everything You Need to Know About Chlamydia PCR Image

Did you know that more than one million sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are acquired each day across the world? According to the World Health Organization (WHO) each year there are about 357 million new infections with one of the four most prevalent STIs: gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, and chlamydia. When left untreated, STIs can cause many complications but testing and timely diagnosis can help prevent unwanted scenarios. This post focuses on chlamydia and test that can help protect your health.

Importance of testing for Chlamydia 

Bearing in mind Chlamydia is the most common STI in the US, it is important to get tested in order to prevent complications that could arise due to lack of management. The biggest mistake that many sexually active men and women make is avoiding getting tested because they experience no symptoms. In some cases, and especially at the very beginning, Chlamydia can be asymptomatic. That means just because you don’t experience any signs and symptoms, it doesn’t mean you’re safe. The infection can also spread to other parts of the body and cause skin irritation, swollen joints, inflammation of the heart, spinal cord, and brain. 

Yearly screening is strongly recommended for sexually active women and homosexual/bisexual men who have unprotected sex. Pregnant women should also get screening for Chlamydia in order to minimize the risk of affecting your child. It is important to inform the doctor if you’re using vaginal douches and creams or if you’re taking antibiotics. Your doctor will probably ask you not to use any of that 24 hours prior to your test.

The most common tests used for the detection of Chlamydia are nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) which include polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. The PCR test is a cutting-edge technology with significantly higher sensitivity and specificity than other tests for Chlamydia. Due to the enhanced sensitivity of the PCR test, it can detect the presence of 20-50 bacteria per reaction and it is ideal for those cases when patients experience no symptoms. 

Since the test search for the bacteria’s genetic material i.e. DNA, it is highly unlikely the result will be false-position. This is yet another reason behind the importance of the PCR test. The test can involve a swab, direct fluorescent antibody (DFA), and urine. The latter is most frequently performed. PCR urine test involves the first-catch urine (20-30ml). It’s crucial not to include more than first catch urine because it would dilute the sample. Ideally, you shouldn’t urinate for at least an hour prior to the PCR urine test. Results are either the positive indicating existence of bacteria or negative meaning there is no sign of bacteria.

Ways to manage Chlamydia 

Unlike some other infections, there aren’t many at-home treatments for Chlamydia. Also, the efficacy of common home remedies is not proven just yet. That said, some patients consume garlic during the meal, drink sage tea, enrich the diet with anti-inflammatory foods. The best thing you can do is to avoid having sex, even if you’re in a relationship or married until your infection goes away. Standard treatment for Chlamydia is the use of antibiotics. Depending on the severity of infection, the doctor may prescribe a one-time dose or you may need to take the medication about five to ten times a day. In order to prevent Chlamydia, avoid having sex with multiple partners and use protection. 

Conclusion

Chlamydia is the most prevalent STD in the United States and one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world. Treatment of Chlamydia revolves around the use of antibiotics, but the timely diagnosis is necessary. PCR urine test is the most reliable detection method and it is highly unlikely to show false positive results, unlike other methods. Get screened once a year to catch an infection and prevent its complications. 

References 

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs110/en/

https://www.cdc.gov/std/stats16/chlamydia.htm

https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/love-sex/why-its-important-to-get-screened-for-stis-even-if-you-have-no-symptoms-10402313.html

https://www.stdcheck.com/blog/everything-about-chlamydia-and-chlamydia-testing/

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/8181.php

https://medlineplus.gov/chlamydiainfections.html

Common STDs and How to Recognize Them

Online STI Test Kits For Home Use

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are conditions passed from one person to another through sexual contact. Millions of people around the globe have STDs, especially in developing countries, including Ghana and other African nations. Prevention of STDs is entirely possible, but to make it happen, we need to get informed and learn as much as we can about them. The main purpose of this post is to highlight common STDs and show you how to recognize their symptoms.

Genital herpes

Genital herpes is a common STD caused by the herpes simplex virus. The virus is categorized into two types: HSV-1, which is mainly transmitted through oral-to-oral contact, usually causing cold sores, but can also induce genital herpes and HSV-2, which is an STD.

How common is genital herpes?

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 3.7 billion people under the age of 50, or 67% of the world population, have HSV-1 infection. About 417 million people aged 15-49, or 11% of the world population, have HSV-2 infection. Estimates show that 350 million women (87%) and 355 million men (87%) in Africa have HSV-1 virus. On the other hand, the HSV-2 virus affects 17 million women in 18 million men in Africa.

Evidence confirms that the prevalence of genital herpes in Ghana is high, and it could be attributed to high endemicity and inadequate intervention, especially in women.

Read More: Genital Herpes in Ghana

Who is at risk of developing genital herpes?

Generally speaking, every sexually active man or woman can develop genital herpes. That being said, some people are at a higher risk than others. Common risk factors associated with genital herpes include:

  • Having unprotected vaginal, anal, and oral sex
  • Having multiple sex partners
  • Having a sexual partner who tested positive for genital herpes
  • Being a woman

Symptoms of genital herpes

The ability to recognize the signs and symptoms of some STD helps an affected man or woman to get much-needed treatment. That’s why it’s important to learn how to recognize symptoms of genital herpes, particularly because most people are not even aware they have it. In most cases, symptoms are mild, and patients think they will go away on their own without realizing they have an STD, which they can transmit to other people.

Symptoms tend to develop two to 12 days after exposure to HSV. People usually experience:

  • Pain and tenderness in the genital area
  • Itching in the genital area
  • Small red bumps or tiny white blisters
  • Ulcers which can rapture, bleed, ooze, and make it difficult to urinate
  • Scabs on the sites where ulcers rapture

An affected person experiences flu-like symptoms during the initial outbreak. They may also experience headache, muscle ache, fever, and swollen lymph nodes in the groin. Sores associated with genital herpes develop on buttocks, thighs, anus, mouth, and even urethra. Women can also develop sores on the cervix and external genitals while men can notice them on scrotum and penis.

Men and women with recurrent herpes develop symptoms about 48 hours before the outbreak. They may notice tingling, pain, and itching at the site of infection. The pain may, in some cases, extend down to buttocks and knees.

Read More: Genital Herpes Symptoms

Why get treated?

Unfortunately, many men and women don’t go to see their doctor get this STD treated. When left unmanaged, genital herpes can lead to many complications such as increased risk to other STDs, meningitis, proctitis (rectal inflammation), bladder problems, and infection of the newborn.

How is genital herpes treated?

The cure which could eliminate genital herpes entirely doesn’t exist, but it is still possible to get the necessary treatment. The main objective of the treatment is to lower the chances of transmitting genital herpes to other people, reduce the frequency of occurrence, lower severity of symptoms, and help sores heal. For this purpose, doctors prescribe antiviral medications such as Acyclovir (Zovirax) and Valacyclovir (Valtrex).

Getting tested regularly is important, and luckily, today, you can order a test online and do it in the comfort of your home rather than scheduling an appointment at the doctor’s office.

Read More: Genital Herpes Treatment

Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is an STD caused by infection with the bacterium called Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which tends to infect moist and warm areas of the body such as urethra, eyes, throat, vagina, anus, and female reproductive tract.

How common is gonorrhea?

Sometimes referred to as “the clap,” gonorrhea is one of the most prevalent STDs. On a global level, 87 million new cases of gonorrhea are diagnosed each year. Like many other STDs, gonorrhea is also more prevalent in developing countries. For example, one study showed that out of 950 subjects from Ghana, 28% of them had gonorrhea, and men were more likely to develop it than women.

Read More: Gonorrhea in Ghana

Who is at risk of developing gonorrhea?

Just like with other sexually transmitted diseases, every man or woman who engages in sexual intercourse can develop gonorrhea. But, the risk is higher in some groups. Factors that increase your odds of developing gonorrhea include:

  • Younger age
  • Having a new sex partner
  • History of other sexually transmitted diseases
  • History of gonorrhea
  • Having a sex partner who also has concurrent partners

Symptoms of gonorrhea

Some people have no symptoms at all, but it doesn’t mean there is no infection. The absence of symptoms can still mean you are infected and also able to transmit this STD to other people. Generally speaking, signs and symptoms of gonorrhea develop one to 14 days after the infection. Men and women experience gonorrhea differently, and below you can see how they feel when they develop this STD.

Men tend to experience:

  • Painful, red, warm and swollen joints
  • White, yellow, or green urethral discharge that looks like pus
  • Pain in the eyes, sensitivity to the light, pus-like discharge from the eyes
  • Pain in scrotum or testicles
  • Itching
  • Difficulty swallowing or swollen lymph nodes in the neck
  • Frequent or painful urination
  • Anal discharge, itching, and pain in the anal area bleeding when passing stool

On the flip side, women with gonorrhea may notice:

  • Fever
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Swollen, red, warm, and painful joints
  • Vaginal discharge yellow or green in color
  • Swelling of the vulva
  • Frequent and painful urination
  • Sore throat, itching, difficulty swallowing, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck
  • Bleeding in between periods
  • Heavier periods
  • Abdominal or pelvic pain and vomiting
  • Bleeding after sexual intercourse
  • Itching and pain in the anal area

Read More: Gonorrhea Symptoms

Why get treated?

As seen above, some men and women may not notice any symptoms at all, but they are still infected. That is why it is crucial to get tested regularly, and home tests could be incredibly practical in this case. Being proactive about sexual health and symptoms of gonorrhea allows you to get the necessary treatment in a timely manner. When left ignored, gonorrhea can cause multiple complications such as infertility, an infection that spreads to other areas and joints in the body, a higher risk of HIV/AIDS, and complications in babies born to infected mothers.

How is gonorrhea treated

The primary route of treatment of gonorrhea is through antibiotics. Partners of infected men and women are also encouraged to get tested in order to prevent transmitting the STD back and forth or to other people.

Read More: Gonorrhea Treatment

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a common, sexually transmitted disease that affects men and women alike. Just like other STDs, Chlamydia is caused by bacteria, and in this case, that is Chlamydia trachomatis. The STD can be spread through vaginal, anal, and oral sex, but it is also possible for pregnant women to spread Chlamydia to their babies during delivery.

How common is Chlamydia?

According to the WHO, about 127 million cases of Chlamydia are diagnosed each year. That is a staggering number. One of the most common reasons behind the ever-growing incidence of Chlamydia, especially in developing nations such as Ghana, is the lack of public awareness. In fact, the prevalence of STDs in Ghana is expected to grow as stigmatization continues. And, as you are already aware, stigmatization occurs due to the absence of the above-mentioned public awareness.

Read More: Chlamydia in Ghana

Who is at risk of developing Chlamydia?

Factors that increase a person’s risk of developing this sexually transmitted disease include:

  • History of some STD
  • Having sex without a condom
  • Changing multiple sex partners in a year
  • Being sexually active before the age of 25

Getting tested regularly can help decrease your risk of developing Chlamydia. Regular tests also raise awareness of this STD, fight stigmatization, and prevent spreading Chlamydia to other people. Besides “traditional” testing at clinics or hospitals, people can also get at-home tests for Chlamydia, which may be practical for those who want more privacy throughout the whole process.

Symptoms of Chlamydia

Chlamydia is often considered as “silent” infection because many people have it although they don’t experience any symptoms. But, just like with other STDs, the absence of symptoms can still mean you are infected, and you can transmit it to someone else. Bear in mind that even if Chlamydia doesn’t cause any symptoms, it can still damage the reproductive system. First signs and symptoms tend to occur one to two weeks after the exposure to the bacterium. Men and women tend to experience this STD differently. Below, you can see the signs and symptoms of Chlamydia in men and women.

Men may notice the following:

  • Pain in the testicles
  • Burning sensation while urinating
  • Pain in the lower abdomen
  • Green or yellow discharge from the penis

It’s also possible to get the infection in anus. In this case, a man may notice pain, bleeding, and discharge from this area.

On the other hand, women may experience these symptoms:

  • Bleeding between periods
  • Painful sexual intercourse
  • Cervicitis (inflammation of the cervix)
  • Pain in the lower abdomen
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Burning sensation while urinating

In some cases, the STD can spread to the fallopian tubes.

Read More: Chlamydia Symptoms

Why get treated?

Reasons to be proactive about the prevention and treatment of Chlamydia (as well as other STDs) are numerous. Besides lowering the risk of transmitting Chlamydia to someone else, you can also decrease the likelihood of experiencing various complications. When left ignored or unmanaged, Chlamydia can harm your health in more ways than one. Some of the most common complications include increased risk of other STDs, pelvic inflammatory disease, infection near the testicles, infections in newborns, infection of prostate, reactive arthritis, and infertility.

Read More: Chlamydia Treatment

How is Chlamydia treated?

Just like other STDs, Chlamydia is treated with antibiotics. A patient may receive a one-time dose, or he or she may need to take the drugs a few times a day for five to 10 days, depending on the severity of symptoms. Generally speaking, the infection goes away in one to two weeks. It goes without saying you need to abstain from sex during this time.

Syphilis

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by bacterium Treponema pallidum, and it develops in four stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary. The bacteria can spread from one person to another through direct contact with a syphilitic sore. Just like other STDs, this one also spreads through sexual contact i.e., vaginal, anal, and oral sex.

How common is syphilis?

The World Health Organization reports that 6.3 million cases of syphilis are recorded each year around the globe. In 2016, the last year for which data is available on a global level, 1 million pregnant women had active syphilis, which led to 350,000 adverse birth outcomes. Of these, 200,000 accounted for stillbirths and neonatal death. In Africa, the prevalence of syphilis is high, especially in males in rural areas. One study of pregnant women showed that the cumulative prevalence of syphilis among 4181 blood donors over a five-year period was 2.58% in Ghana.

Population-based studies show greater prevalence, and scientists point out that the lack of precise information can be correct with further research on this topic. More precise information allows scientists and healthcare professionals to create programs to raise awareness and prevent this STD from spreading.

Read More: Syphilis in Ghana

Who is at risk of developing syphilis?

You may have a higher risk of developing syphilis if these factors apply to you:

  • HIV infection
  • Regularly engaging in unprotected and risky sex
  • Man who has sexual intercourse with other men
  • Changing multiple sexual partners

Symptoms of syphilis

Symptoms of syphilis vary from stage to stage.

The primary syphilis is usually indicated by chancre (small sore), which appears on the site where bacteria entered the body. The chancre develops about three weeks after exposure to bacteria. It may be hidden in rectum or vagina, so many people don’t notice it. Chancre tends to go away on its own in one to three weeks. Some people can have one chancre only, but others may have several, and it tends to be painless.

Secondary syphilis occurs within a few weeks after the chancre has healed. A person may notice:

  • Rash starting on the trunk and spreading across the body
  • Sores in mouth or genitals
  • Hair loss
  • Muscle aches
  • Fever
  • Sore throat
  • Swollen lymph nodes

The above-mentioned symptoms may go away in a few weeks, but in some cases, they come and go throughout the year.

Latent syphilis occurs when a person isn’t treated in the first two stages. This phase has no noticeable symptoms, but it may last for years before it progresses to the tertiary stage. The last stage of syphilis involves the spreading of the STD to other organs such as the brain, blood vessels, heart, bones, liver, and joints.

Read More: Syphilis Symptoms

Why get treated?

Without proper treatment, syphilis can progress from one stage to another and cause a number of complications such as the formation of small bumps or tumors on the skin, bones, and other organs, cardiovascular problems, neurological problems, higher risk of HIV, and complications in pregnancy and with childbirth.

How is syphilis treated?

Syphilis is easy to treat when diagnosed in early stages when doctors usually prescribe penicillin. In most cases, one injection is necessary. In later stages, syphilis can be difficult to treat, which is why it’s crucial to see the doctor as soon as you notice sore on your genital area.

Read More: Syphilis Treatment

Conclusion

Sexually transmitted diseases are common but are preventable. Practice safe sex, get tested regularly, and learn how to recognize signs and symptoms. The more you know, the safer you are.

Read More: STD’s in Ghana

References

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/herpes-simplex-virus

https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/28-10-2015-globally-an-estimated-two-thirds-of-the-population-under-50-are-infected-with-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6081947/

https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/sexually-transmitted-infections-(stis)

https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-019-4035-y#Sec5

https://www.ghanahealthservice.org/ghs-item-details.php?scid=22&iid=78

https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-019-3967-6#Sec11

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5998162/

Information about home test for chlamydia

Chlamydia Information

Chlamydia is a venereal disease that comes from the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. This bacterium attacks and embeds on the lining of the genital cells in the body. Unlike most bacteria, trachomatis needs a host to reproduce. Though it is defective on the human cells, the embedding makes it easy for detection in a test.

Read More: The Chlamydia Bacterium

Thus, a simple self-test at home can precisely give correct exposures. The advantage of having a home test is it takes a few minutes to relay the results. Early detection of the disease helps you in dealing with any rapid development of the pelvic inflammation damages.

Product: Right Sign Chlamydia Test

Product: One Step Chlamydia Test

Sampling of tissues

Men and women have different anatomies in their bodies. This means the procedures for collecting samples vary. The testing procedure may take about fifteen minutes to relay back the results. It is smooth and precise if you do it under safe and sterile conditions. Besides the sampling methods, the other testing procedure is the same.

Women Chlamydia home Test Sampling

The self-test home kit comes with a test tube, a swab, and two solutions, A and B. the commonplace of infection is usually the vagina. Then, take a swab and rub it in the vagina to collect tissue cells. If you can, using your urine can also produce the same results. In the test tube, pour in the solution A to sterilize it before putting in the sample. Put in the sample after the first procedure with solution A.

Men Chlamydia Home Test Sampling

For the men, the procedure is almost the same, but slightly different. Gently take the swab and insert it slightly into your urethra opening. Rub vigorously in round rotations inside the urine opening. Though it may hurt slightly, it is the only way to produce results. After the unpleasant procedure, you can put the swab with the tissues in the test tube with the solution A. you may also use your urine, but the swab tissue is more precise.

Read More: Chlamydia Symptoms

Results Analysis

This is the last stage before finding out the status of your condition. You have to put in some drops of solution B into the test tube. Close the test tube and shake vigorously for about 20 seconds. After the solution mixes with the sample, you can now introduce it in the testing cartridge. This is the most anxious of all the stages. It takes about 20 minutes to wait. When it is ready, you will see one line for a negative result and two lines for a positive outcome.

The home test kit is a quick way of knowing your status if you do not feel like opening up to any clinic. It is faster than the clinical tests that may take about a day or two in most cases.

Read More: What is Chlamydia? and why get tested

Chlamydia Treatment with Antibiotics

Chlamydia Information

Chlamydia is one of the most frequent STIs in the world, affecting more than 1,700,000 people all across the U.S. Records show that many of these cases remain unreported because people don’t get tested or never experience any symptoms.

Read More: Chlamydia in Ghana

Even though our human bodies are well-equipped to fight the infection alone, once it spreads to the reproductive system, the disease becomes too risky. This is a serious issue, and it can result in infertility and inflammation.

The only way to know for sure if an individual is infected is to get tested. As soon as you get diagnosed, you need to seek treatment, and this is the first and most important thing for managing the disease. Anyone who seeks treatment will receive proper antibiotics after thorough testing.

Product: Right Sign Chlamydia Test

Product: One Step Chlamydia Test

What Causes Chlamydia?

Chlamydia trachomatis is the bacteria responsible for the disease, and it infects the cells in the urinary tract. This type of bacteria can live in the cervix (the low end of the womb), vagina, urethra (a tube that connects the bladder), rectum, throat, and the eyes. Anyone can transmit it and get it. The only way to transmit it is via sexual contact as long as the individual comes in direct contact with infected semen or vaginal fluids.

Read More: Fact About the Chlamydia Bacteria

When to Get Treatment?

If you suspect you have any symptoms that may indicate a chlamydia infection, seek treatment immediately. Ask your doctor for evaluation and check your medical history for further information that may have anything to do with your sexual life.

Your doctor will determine if you need to receive proper treatment and when to start using adequate antibiotics.

Read More: Chlamydia Treatment

The Different Types of Antibiotics Used for Treating Chlamydia

Based on statistics, 95% of all the individuals infected can be treated with antibiotics. One of the most common antibiotics prescribed are:

  • Doxycycline
  • Azithromycin

Doxycycline antibiotics are taken two times a day for a week, while Azithromycin can only be taken at once as 2-4 tablets.

 If you are allergic to something you are breastfeeding or pregnant, you might receive different antibiotics based on your condition or potential complications. Side effects are possible, but mild. There is a chance of diarrhea, stomach pain, vaginal thrush, etc. 

Doxycycline

Doxycycline is designed to fight the bacteria inside the body. It can treat multiple different infections, from simple ones such as acne to something as serious as chlamydia. The purpose of this antibiotic is to boost the immune system. It affects the production of toxins and inhibits its growth. But, once a patient has started taking these antibiotics, that patient must avoid sexual intercourse while the treatment lasts. After a couple of weeks, if the symptoms still persist, or you believe the infection has reappeared, you can be tested.

Azithromycin

Azithromycin is an extremely powerful antibiotic that attacks the bacteria. It’s only main goal is to kill it. This type of antibiotic is only given to those who can’t be treated with Doxycycline. It’s a fast and potent treatment that can get rid of the bacteria left in the system.

Read More: What’s Chlamydia and Benefits of Testing at Home

References

https://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/stdfact-chlamydia-detailed.htm

https://www.fpa.org.uk/sites/default/files/chlamydia-information-and-advice.pdf

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/chlamydia/treatment/

Facts about Chlamydia Bacteria

Chlamydia Information

Chlamydia belongs to the venereal diseases close to gonorrhea. You may wonder that Chlamydia is most prevalent among adolescents and young adults.

This is because most people mistake this disease with gonorrhea. Chlamydia is transmitted through sexual encounters or exposure to genital fluids.

The Chlamydia causing bacteria chlamydia trachomatis is commonly known as trachomatis. As you have seen, it is the young and most knowledgeable that are at risk of the disease. Thus, it is prudent for them to have all they need to know about Chlamydia.

Risks of Chlamydia Trachomatis

The vulnerable groups from this disease are people within the age group 15 to 25. It is the group that is actively involved in childbearing. Some of the symptoms of the disease include

  • Inflammation of the genitals
  • Pain in the pelvic region
  • Yellowish green discharge from the genital
  • Fever and sore throat
  • Premenstrual bleeding for women
  • In some cases, anal Chlamydia may occur

The longtime risks of chlamydia range from severe damage to the reproductive organs in both men and women. In pregnant women, there is a potential of infecting the child at birth. The outcome may be damage to the eyes, lungs, and skin. In the long run, the baby may suffer blindness and have a deficiency in immunity.

The most profound advantage of the chlamydia bacteria is the ability to stay in a host without detection. It can reproduce and continue infecting the person without showing any clinical signs.

This helps it to spread from one person to another with ease. Women tend to inhibit the bacteria for longer than men.

Read More: Chlamydia Symptoms

Diagnosis and Treatment

Apart from regular questions about your history and concerns, the doctor carries a physical observation. Samples from the genitals go for testing in the laboratory.

Sometimes, further tests may come from the throat, anus, and the sores. After the results, the doctor prescribes medication.

The treatment of the bacteria is through antibiotics. Usually, the dose goes for about a week. It is paramount to abstain from sex during and after the medication until the doctor certifies your recovery.

At no point should one skip or negate on taking the drug. Though it is easy to treat, the damage on the organs if untreated can be long term.

Read More: Chlamydia Treatment With Antibiotics

Read More: Chlamydia Treatment

Prevention

There is no possible way to prevent Chlamydia apart from abstinence from sex. In case you cannot manage that, practicing safe sex comes next. Make sure there is no genital to body contact unless there is protection. Regular screening for both partners will help protect each other and early detection.

Ultimately, one should weigh the options ahead. Is it the pleasure of having unsafe sex and contracting chlamydia bacteria, or being safe and reserving your reproductive organs for the future.

Read More: Chlamydia in Ghana

References

https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-018-3477-y

https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-019-4035-y

http://ir.knust.edu.gh/bitstream/123456789/8024/1/Chlamydia%20trachomatis%20prevalence%20in%20two%20Accra%20hospitals%20in%20%20%20%20%20%20the%20Greater%20Accra%20Region%20and%20thre.pdf

What Is Chlamydia, Why Get Tested at Home?

Chlamydia Information

Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that affects women and men alike. When not treated properly, Chlamydia can cause serious complications. The problem becomes even more severe if we bear in mind that most people are not even aware they have this STD. The importance of getting tested for Chlamydia is undeniable, and now it has become easier than ever to do so.

Product: Chlamydia Private Test Kit

Product: One Step Chlamydia Test

How we get Chlamydia?

Like other STDs, Chlamydia is transmitted through direct contact by having unprotected oral, vaginal, or anal sex with an infected person. Chlamydia can also spread through genital contact alone. A vast majority of people experience no symptoms of Chlamydia, but they can still spread this STD to someone else. This could explain why the prevalence of this common problem keeps growing.

While every sexually active man and woman can develop Chlamydia, some are at a higher risk than others. Common risk factors for Chlamydia include:

  • History of STDs
  • Having sex without a condom
  • Being sexually active before the age of 25
  • Having multiple sex partners within a year

Read More: Chlamydia in Ghana

Read More: STD Information Africa

What are the symptoms of Chlamydia?

As mentioned above, many people don’t experience symptoms at all, especially when this STD is in its early stages. Generally speaking, symptoms develop one to two weeks after exposure to the bacteria during sexual intercourse. Men and women experience Chlamydia differently. Also, the severity of the symptoms may vary from one person to another.

Symptoms of Chlamydia in women usually involve:

  • Urgent need to urinate
  • Discomfort when urinating
  • A large amount of vaginal discharge often yellow and foul-smelling
  • Low-grade fever
  • Bleeding between periods
  • Painful sexual intercourse
  • Burning sensation when urinating
  • Swelling in the vagina or around the anus

In most men, Chlamydia manifests itself through pain and burning sensation when urinating, swelling and tenderness of the testicles, and penile discharge.

Read More: Chlamydia Symptoms

How often to get tested?

Symptoms of Chlamydia are uncomfortable and have the ability to disrupt a person’s quality of life. The problem with Chlamydia in countries like Ghana is that the disease can spread due to a lack of public awareness. The healthcare system doesn’t do enough to raise the awareness of Chlamydia and other STDs. As a result, many men and women don’t understand the absence of symptoms doesn’t mean there is no Chlamydia and they may unknowingly spread it to someone else. When not treated in a timely manner, Chlamydia can lead to various complications, particularly in pregnant women.

You should get tested for Chlamydia once a year, especially if you are a female, under the age of 25, or you started having sex at a younger age, don’t use condoms, have a history of STDs. If you tend to switch sex partners, it is also recommended to get tested for Chlamydia more often.

It is also important to mention that if you already have Chlamydia, you should get retested after three months. The reason is simple; getting retested helps determine whether you have spread the infection to someone else or got infected again.

Read More: Why it’s important to get tested for STD’s

Why get tested at home?

Back in time, there were not many options to discover whether you have Chlamydia or not. You would need to book an appointment to see the doctor who ordered tests to be done. The whole process is time-consuming due to wait periods, inadequate healthcare system. When you add to the inefficacy of healthcare, the social stigma surrounding sexually transmitted diseases Chlamydia, it becomes evident why many people do not get tested. The consequences are felt on the national level as more people unknowingly spread Chlamydia to their sex partners who then go on and transmit it onto someone else, the circle keeps going. Most people across the world, including Ghana, do not understand all the aspects of Chlamydia, and they have false security that they’re safe or won’t get it. Everyone can raise public awareness by starting making changes in their lifestyle first. Home testing can help make it happen.

What is the purpose of a home test, you probably wonder? Can it really discover whether I have Chlamydia?

The home test for Chlamydia is, therefore, the ideal solution for men and women who want to learn whether they have this problem or not in the privacy of their home. All that’s necessary is to get the test; no need to schedule an appointment, travel to GP’s office, wait, do the test, come back for results, and feel uncomfortable the whole time. Home tests take away the discomfort from learning whether you have Chlamydia or not. This is a discrete way to be proactive about your sexual health and, in case you have Chlamydia, to avoid spreading it to someone else.

If the result shows you have Chlamydia, you can see your doctor and get the necessary treatment, and that’s it.

The best thing about the Chlamydia test is the fact it’s quick. Results are available fast and with the highest accuracy. Therefore, you can be confident that the results you see are true, reliable, and available to you only.

The chlamydia home test is also easy to use. A few simple steps are necessary to get the sample and get tested — no complicated and time-consuming maneuvers.

Getting tested for Chlamydia is a responsible thing to do, and now people can do it without leaving their homes. A few years back, this wasn’t possible, which possibly led to an increased incidence of Chlamydia. Now you have the opportunity to take control of your sexual and reproductive health. Don’t wait! Get Chlamydia test today and get rid of the stress, discomfort, and other negative emotions that would usually arise before going to the GP’s to get tested.

References:

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/8181.php#symptoms

All You Need to Know About STDs in Africa

Online STI Test Kits For Home Use

STDs or Sexually Transmitted Diseases are a serious burden for the overall health of many people in Africa. These diseases not only do they affect health, but they also have economic and social consequences. Based on statistics from 2018, more than 20.6 million people in the south and eastern African region have HIV.

Read More: HIV and AIDS

However, the problem doesn’t solely include AIDS or HIV; in fact, it includes HCV, HPV, syphilis, gonorrhea, HBV, and more. The core of the problem begins with the poor knowledge and awareness of Africans regarding STIs. Based on statistics from 35 different countries across Africa, only 66.8% use condoms, and just 42.5% believe it is possible to get HBV from intercourse.

Read More: Gonorrhea in Ghana

Read More: Syphilis in Ghana

Read More: Genital Herps (HSV) in Ghana

Read More: Chlamydia in Ghana

Most people in Africa hide their STIs because they consider it to be disgraceful. This is a cultural phenomenon that has put a strain on the way people deal with the diseases. Patients are afraid to seek help or address the issue. Research from 2017 shows that 37 million people across the globe live with HIV, while 66% of all cases come from the sub-Saharan African region. That is a total of 5.6 million people. In other words, South Africa has the biggest number of people who live with HIV. 

Even though the economy in Africa boomed in mid-2013, it still remains the poorest continent in the world. In South Africa, the number of people infected with HIV continues to grow, but treatments and other forms of support, like counseling, have increased as well. Despite the scientific progress for treating such diseases, cultural traditions and laws remain a barrier for preventing STIs all across the continent.

Main Focus:

  • The Risk Factors Associated with STDs in Ghana
  • AIDS and STDs in Ghana
  • Genital Herpes Is a Serious Issue
  • Syphilis During Pregnancy
  • Current Challenges and Problems to Overcome

The Risk Factors Associated with STDs in Ghana

Based on statistics, more than a million STIs are transmitted across the globe every single day. Some of these STIs can be treated, like chlamydia and gonorrhea, but others can have serious consequences on the overall health.

In all developing countries in Africa, including Ghana, this is a serious issue, since STIs are the most common bacterial infections that can be transmitted in the area.

The reason why this is so important is that such infections as HIV, for example, can be a serious potential epidemic for the entire continent, research shows. These symptoms in females are easily recognizable like:

  • Discharge
  • Pain in the lower abdomen
  • Painful or trouble urinating
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Blood in the urine

However, in many cases, these symptoms don’t appear often making patients delay their necessary treatment or transmit the disease even more. According to research, if the infections are left untreated, they could make women susceptible to complications during pregnancy. They can cause chronic pain in the pelvic area, infertility, pneumonia, or blindness.

The symptoms in males are a little different, studies show. The most typical symptoms may include:

  • Discharge
  • Narrowed urethra
  • Inflamed testicles
  • Sterility

AIDS and STDs in Ghana

Many infectious diseases, like gonorrhea, were first recorded in Ghana before the European settlers colonized the land. In the southern part of Ghana, syphilis and gonorrhea became a serious problem in the 20s. It took years before the problem dissipated. But, during the late 40s, with the arrival of the troops from World War II and laborers, syphilis and gonorrhea cases only spiked once more.

Based on records, the government didn’t take any necessary precautions to stop the spread of the diseases. As a result, people had to find a different alternative that would help ease the symptoms, and that was sulpha drugs. These were, in fact, illegal drugs only sold on the black market in Ghana.

When the first time AIDS was diagnosed, and cases with trichomonas, gonorrhea, and chlamydia were registered, back in 1986, the government turned their attention towards this serious problem. In 1993, programs were introduced to help control the spread of the disease and raise awareness.

However, due to the lack of funds, people can’t afford to insist on using condoms, which remains a serious issue for the African population.

Genital Herpes Is a Serious Issue

According to statistics, a lot more people in Africa have genital herpes compared to the U.S. Researchers believe that identifying the properties of the viruses widespread in Africa could open the door to new possibilities. Particularly in creating vaccines that could help reduce the rampant infections.

The reason why this is so important is that patients who suffer from genital herpes are more at risk of developing AIDS or HIV. Herpes contains many cells, specifically immune cells, that the HIV infection will target.

Based on the same statistics, 90% of adults in the southern African region have genital herpes compared to the 20% in the U.S. Even though herpes is not something that has recently been discovered, it persists in the African community, often affecting a single person for decades.

For people who never notice these symptoms, the virus could be a silent infiltrator that will slowly disintegrate the health over time. It will make the person prone to more serious infections in the near future.

Read More: Genital Herpes (HSV) Symptoms

Syphilis During Pregnancy

Studies show that Africa has a lack of coverage for treatments and screening for syphilis infections in clinics. The benefits of having such treatments have been well-documented across the years. Statistics show that this particular bacterial infection is accountable for 50% of all stillbirths, particularly in Mwanza.

If this infection is properly treated in the African regions, it can help save many lives. However, it remained an unsolved problem in this continent for a long time. It wasn’t until 1992 that the number of pregnant women screened for syphilis elevated to 100%. Compared to 60% during the previous years, it is a welcome change. Furthermore, 50% of their partners also received proper treatment for syphilis, meaning there are a lot of people who have yet to be treated or screened for syphilis.

Read More: Syphilis Symptoms

Control and Management

According to research, despite the valuable efforts to increase public awareness and knowledge of STIs in Africa, all sexually transmitted diseases remain a huge problem for the general public. These diseases result in numerous deaths, problems with pregnancies, cancer, illness, and more.

In fact, Africa is the number one most affected continent by both STIs and HIV in the world, statistics show. Based on the same statistics, around 14.1 million children have been recorded losing both or one of their parents due to sexually transmitted diseases.

Since 2008, effective and high-quality programs have been implemented. Each of these programs focused on providing treatment for HIV and necessary consultations. The idea was to raise awareness and improve the overall cases in different countries around the continent. Since then, 44% of children and adults are now receiving proper treatment. That is a lot more compared to the 2% coverage patients had in 2003.

The coverage for many is fruitful. Unfortunately, there are many individuals in Africa who have yet to attend programs to control their disease. This is the main problem, and a real challenge for the programs since individuals such as these fail to get tested or receive counseling. Most of these individuals are men.

The increase in the effectiveness of the coverage itself is not enough to diminish the real epidemic across the continent. There is a lot more work to be done to prevent this serious issue. More implementations and findings are necessary if the efforts are to continue.

Due to the lack, or the non-existent infection programs in Africa, it is more difficult to control the epidemic.  But, there is one research, previously mentioned, that shows the effect of the already-implemented programs in this region. Since 1999, syphilis and chlamydia infections have drastically decreased, making these programs beneficial and important.

With all the efforts and available counseling, now 85% of the people in Africa are aware they are HIV positive, and 79% of them now get proper treatment, statistics show.

Current Challenges and Problems to Overcome

All the important advances in research for HIV and STDs have been coming from the data collected in Africa. Many of them are now used on a daily basis in clinics around the world. That makes this continent one of the most important places for studying the effects of the infections. 

But, there are three major problems that slow down further improvements and successful treatments. Those problems include:

  • Inadequate funding
  • Lack of workforce that has been trained to work in this environment
  • Proper infrastructure

Without any of these factors, any further success is seriously impaired. Firstly, infections such as gonorrhea require constant management and monitoring to avoid the spread of the infection. Secondly, all the treatments required and testings necessary cost a lot of money. This can put a huge strain on the currently available funds.

To manage the costs, quick and cheap syphilis tests are now conducted in African regions. Another serious problem that affects the whole effect of the program is discrimination. In many, if not all, African countries, it is impossible for healthcare workers to give any help to patience because of the discriminatory law. Lastly, international partners are crucial in programs such as these. Without partners, the research won’t be able to receive proper funding or take up numerous different strategies.

In this current situation, the HPV vaccine is difficult to afford, which is why many people, particularly women, are at risk of cancer or other diseases. To make the vaccine available for everyone, manufacturers should reduce the cost. After all, these vaccines can save a life.

To make sure that children don’t get the same disease, research shows, it is better to implement the HPV vaccine into typical vaccination schedules for children.

There is also another problem that shouldn’t be overlooked. There are some people in Africa who are more vulnerable to STIs than the rest of the population. These people are sex workers, young women, transgender people, men who have intercourse with men, and those who are imprisoned. While others can still get these infections, the people who meet these specific criteria are more exposed to it, making the infection difficult to control.

Conclusion

For Africa, any sexually transmitted infections are a serious problem. This continent has been the main front for STI research in the last couple of decades resulting in numerous valuable research that could potentially be life-saving.

However, such results can’t be achieved over-night. It requires a series of long-term data, dedication, and collaboration with people and partnerships. In the past, STIs were not that focused on, and people had to rely on illegal methods to obtain medications.

When this research was first introduced, it was able to address only specific issues and focus on counseling. But, as the years progressed and the infections spread, more interventions had to be implemented. Due to the strong scientific evidence, the problem of the STIs is now strongly acknowledged making it a top priority to solve.

The approach to the disease was changed in an effort to bring acceptable care for patients in need. As a result, it was possible to implement interventions that would help control the spread of infections.

To overcome this problem, there are plenty of different steps that should be taken. Some of these steps have begun many years ago, but remain an unsolved issue today. The real problem rests in the multiple factors that halt the progress. Despite having the necessary technology and data for controlling such infections, a lack of funding and cultural restrictions make the problem even more difficult to deal with.

Without a proper vaccine, it is almost impossible to prevent HIV in Africa because of how widespread it is. Since the sexual reproductive health in Africa is considered taboo and irrelevant, it makes it more difficult to share awareness and increase overall knowledge.

Cooperating with partners has made training programs, treatments, counseling, and teaching activities possible. These programs have proved effective.

Reference

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0213224

https://www.unaids.org/en/resources/fact-sheet

https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7705861

https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/sexually-transmitted-infections-(stis)

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00007435-200811000-00011

https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-019-4035-y

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(12)61729-2/fulltext

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110415083142.htm#targetText=In%20southern%20Africa%2C%20infection%20rates,percent%20in%20the%20United%20States.&targetText=In%20evolutionary%20terms%2C%20the%20herpes%20viruses%20are%20very%20old.

https://sti.bmj.com/content/87/Suppl_2/ii10

http://data.unaids.org/pub/report/2009/jc1700_epi_update_2009_en.pdf

https://sti.bmj.com/content/86/7/488?ijkey=f61101ad7ea4a6d38d38ad09d08ea667c028b5ad&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

https://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-around-world/sub-saharan-africa/overview

Chlamydia Treatment

Chlamydia Information

Statistics show that 1 million STIs (sexually transmitted infections) are transmitted every single day. The three most common such infections are gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis, with chlamydia being a huge burden in developing countries such as Ghana. 

Based on studies that analyzed the frequency rate of STIs transmitted in Ghana, chlamydia infections were 20.4%, meaning this is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the region. The same records show that of all the reported cases in the world for chlamydia infection, 9.1 million people infected live in Africa.

Read More: Chlamydia in Ghana

Common Forms of Treatment for Chlamydia

Chlamydia can be treated and managed with antibiotics. But, for the infection to be completely treated, individuals should abstain from sexual intercourse. It’s important to abstain for at least one week or until the antibiotics have been completely used. Otherwise, that individual can risk spreading the infection to their partner.

However, even if the individual has received proper treatment, these antibiotics can’t undo permanent damage. If the infection has seriously affected the reproductive organs, the antibiotics can’t reverse that effect. A typical example is an infertility.

Furthermore, the infection can re-appear, so proper treatments are crucial to avoid the risk of a re-infection. The more chlamydial infections a woman experiences, the higher the risk of developing serious reproductive problems. Such problems are an ectopic pregnancy and pelvic inflammatory disease.

Read More: Modern Chlamydia Treatment

Dealing With Cases that Are Difficult to Treat

Even though this infection can be treated with antibiotics, many fail to get diagnosed on time. Some even build up antibiotic resistance that makes the infection incredibly difficult to treat.

To deal with the increased difficulties in treating chlamydia, WHO (World Health Organization) released a new treatment. This treatment specifically targeted trachoma infections in Ghana, back in 1996. After 20 years of commitment and hard work, the treatment was a success. In the summer of 2018, WHO congratulated Ghana for successfully eliminating trachoma and managing to solve the major health problem in the country.

This remarkable feat saved millions of people suffering from eye pain, redness, and potential blindness due to chlamydia.

Read more: Gonorrhea in the Eye

What Happens If the Infection is Left Untreated?

Chlamydia can be a serious danger for the overall health, not only the reproductive organs but the rectum and eyes as well. For any individual infected with chlamydia infertility, inflammation, pain in the anus, pain during intercourse, bleeding between periods are not uncommon problems.

If an infected individual doesn’t receive proper treatment, this infection can be passed on from a mother to a child. The child can later face pneumonia, eye infections, and potential blindness. For a newborn, these can be extremely difficult health problems to overcome.

Many don’t notice the symptoms of the condition, which is why it’s important to get tested.

Read More: Chlamydia – why get tested at home

References

https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/rtis/stis-new-treatment-guidelines/en/

http://www.ijstr.org/final-print/jan2014/Chlamydia-Trachomatis-Prevalence-In-Ghana-A-Study-At-A-Municipal-District-In-Western-Ghana.pdf

https://www.afro.who.int/news/ghana-eliminates-trachoma-freeing-millions-suffering-and-blindness

https://www.webmd.com/sexual-conditions/chlamydia#1

https://www.sexwise.fpa.org.uk/stis/chlamydia

Chlamydia symptoms

Chlamydia Information

Despite the numerous campaigns for raising awareness of the dangers of unprotected sex, many sexually transmitted infections, like chlamydia, are still a serious burden for people in developing countries, especially in Ghana.  With women considered to be at the highest risk of developing this infection compared to men, research shows.

Based on studies targeted towards the frequency of STIs (sexually transmitted infections) in Ghana, out of 186 people tested 167 had chlamydia, 24% being men, and 76% women.

According to statistics, 131 million people across the world are infected with chlamydia. This makes Chlamydia 50 times more common than any other STIs, including gonorrhea and syphilis. This serious infection can cause permanent damage resulting in infertility if left untreated.

Identifying the symptoms of this infection on time can help stop it from spreading. The symptoms can be treated and managed with the proper antibiotics only if caught on time. However, there is one problem – chlamydia is a sneaky infection. Based on records, 70% of women don’t even know they are infected with chlamydia and often mistake the symptoms for something else.

Read More: Chlamydia in Ghana

Symptoms of Chlamydia

Most of the symptoms will need weeks to show, but they do appear in both women and men. Here is a list of some of the most common symptoms people can experience.

  • Pain in the lower abdomen
  • Painful intercourse
  • Fever
  • Extreme need to urinate too often
  • Burning or painful urinating
  • Bleeding when not on period
  • Soft or swollen testicles
  • Milky discharge from the penis

Product: One Step Chlamydia Test

Product: Right Sign Chlamydia Test

Symptoms of Chlamydia in the Eyes and Anus

Chlamydia doesn’t only affect the reproductive organs; it also infects other parts of the body, including the eyes and anus. If these parts of the body come in contact with infected vaginal fluid or semen, the infection can pass onto the areas and cause numerous problems. Here are some of the most common ways to recognize this infection.

  • Pain/bleeding/discharge from the anus
  • Pain/redness/discharge from the eyes

Since most of the symptoms are difficult to point out or won’t even show, it’s crucial to get tested. This is the only sure way to make sure if a person is infected. The ideal way to do it is to go to youth centers, colleges, or pharmacies where they offer to test.

Read More: Chlamydia in the Eye

Read More: Why get Tested for Chlamydia

Proper Diagnosis

If you suspect you have any STIs, you may have to go for a physical exam to check if any of the symptoms you are experiencing have to do with chlamydia. At the end of the exam, a swab sample from the affected area can be taken; this includes the reproductive organs, rectum, throat, or a sample from the urine. This can help conclude if there is a need for treatment or any need for antibiotics. That’s why it’s crucial to get tested.

Read More: Chlamydia Treatment

References

https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/rtis/stis-new-treatment-guidelines/en/

https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/stds-hiv-safer-sex/chlamydia/chlamydia-symptoms

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/chlamydia/symptoms/

http://www.ijstr.org/final-print/jan2014/Chlamydia-Trachomatis-Prevalence-In-Ghana-A-Study-At-A-Municipal-District-In-Western-Ghana.pdf

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/8181.php