New Study Identifies What Gives Nigerian Students Confidence to Use Condoms

New Study Identifies What Gives Nigerian Students Confidence to Use Condoms Image

The center of efforts to decrease the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases accounts for raising awareness of condom use. In Nigeria and neighboring countries, this has been a tricky endeavor as public stigma often prevents men and women from being open about their sex life. Purchasing a box of condoms isn’t such an easy task for many, but things are changing. The latest study explored and identified different reasons that gave confidence to Nigerian students to adopt healthier sex practices and use condoms. Below, you can learn more.

Attitudes about condom use

Condoms are widely promoted to encourage sexually active men and women to practice safe sex. This has become incredibly important for students i.e. people who have started with sexual activity and need to be safe and cautious to avoid potentially negative scenarios (STDs and unwanted pregnancy) down the road. That being said, there were no studies that aimed to inspect the efficacy of those efforts to promote condom use and determine whether they had any impact. 

A study whose findings were published in the journal PLoS One aimed to change that. The main objective of the study was to assess the predictors of self-efficacy for condom use among university students in Nigeria. For the study, researchers enrolled 755 students in Nigeria who were interviewed in a period between February and April 2018. The results of the study are interesting and contribute to knowledge about the sexual behavior and health of healthy young adults in sub-Saharan Africa.

Over 70% of students were between 20 and 34 years old and 80% of subjects were sexually experienced. Moreover, 78% of students stated that religion was a significant part of their lives. Interestingly, 53% of students have never discussed sex-related subjects with their mother and 84% confessed they never talked about this topic with their father.

The study revealed that sexually experienced students were most confident about buying and using condoms. This finding clearly shows that confidence in condom use stems from sexual experience. Scientists confirmed that self-belief is developed through personal experience, but other important factors played a role. Age, sex, and parental factors also contributed to a person’s confidence in condom use.

Importance of the study

Findings from the study can serve health agencies and regulatory bodies to update their campaigns and target high-risk groups such as sexually inexperienced people who are less confident about condom use. These results also show there is a lot that has to be done to encourage young people in sub-Saharan Africa to use condoms and practice safe sex, be open about their sexual experiences, and thereby protecting themselves and others.


Sexually experienced students are more confident in condom use than their inexperienced counterparts. Other factors such as age also play a role. These findings could shape up efforts to promote safe sex practices by targeting those who are at the least likely to use condoms.


Ebola Survivors Can Pass on Disease Through Sexual Activity

Ebola Survivors Can Pass on Disease Through Sexual Activity Image

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), ebola outbreak that was declared in the Democratic Republic of Congo is the world’s second-largest Ebola epidemic. The latest figures show that 3444 cases of Ebola were recorded including 1169 survivors and 2264 deaths. Considering the severity of the disease, scientists are trying to uncover as much as they can about ebola and its consequences. The latest study showed that survivors can pass on the virus through sexual intercourse. 

Passing on Ebola through sexual intercourse

Ebola is a serious condition that requires further studies to uncover all the mechanisms through which the disease spreads and develops. Reports show that the re-emergence of Ebola is strongly associated with sexual transmission from survivors and persistent infections. In other words, patients who have survived ebola can still carry the virus and spread it to their sexual partners several months after the recovery. Survival from ebola and absence of symptoms may give people a false sense of security which is why they could transmit the virus (which they still carry) to someone without realizing it. 

A review of studies, published in the journal Virus, focused on the persistence of the Ebola virus in survivors. The paper suggests that sporadic transmission events led to the initiation of new chains of human-to-human transmission. As a result, many studies theorized that the re-emergence was down to infections from people who have already survived the disease, as mentioned above. The asymptomatic infection and long-term viral persistence in ebola disease survivors could result in the incidental introduction of the virus in new geographic regions and raise both national and local public health concerns. 

The complexity surrounding ebola disease also includes the fact that the virus could be detected in 50% of male survivors even 115 days after recovery. What’s more, the Ebola virus could linger in the recovered patient for up to three years. This means there is a potential for a man who has beaten Ebola could still give the virus to his sexual partner. Of course, it would be difficult to control the outbreak and the incidence of new cases under these circumstances. 

Further studies are crucial

Discovery that survivors could pass ebola to their sexual partners is crucial, but many other questions need answers. One of the biggest problems here is that men’s semen was used in studies, but it is also important to carry out studies in women as well. 

The fact that ebola could have this transmission route could point to new cases of the disease. That’s why it’s also important to study the disease more thoroughly. The information obtained through studies could help educate the public and raise awareness of different transmission routes.


Evidence shows that patients who have survived ebola could still transmit the disease through sexual activity, even if they do not officially have other symptoms. More studies are necessary to explore this disease and different transmission routes. 


Sexually Transmitted Human Papillomavirus (HPV) In Africa

Sexually Transmitted Human Papillomavirus (HPV) In Africa Image

HPV, or human papillomavirus, is a growing concern. Recent findings suggest a spike in the incidence of HPV diagnosis in the African region. Initial symptoms of the infection are often overlooked. This increases the patient’s risk of developing more serious complications. Currently, a concerning complication includes cervical cancer. 

HPV Incidence Rates In Africa

HPV incidence is increasing according to several reports. Some areas of Africa also seem to be at a higher risk for the infection than others. The highest incidence of HPV is reported in Eastern Africa, with an epidemiology rating of 20.3% among female citizens. In Africa, when all areas are considered, the prevalence of HPV is 18.7% among African women. An estimated 372 million women over the age of 15 in Africa are also considered to be at risk for cervical cancer. 

Recognizing HPV Symptoms Early

Patients who are able to recognize early symptoms of HPV have a higher chance of preventing its complications. For most people, genital warts will be the first symptom to appear. Some people also develop general warts when they are infected with HPV. Two other types of warts can also affect the patient – these include flat and plantar warts. 

The condition can also lead to upper respiratory lesions. Some people develop oral lesions. Cervical cancer is another growing concern related to HPV. There are other cancers that have also been associated with HPV infection. These include cancers affecting the genitals, upper respiratory tract, mouth, and the patient’s anus. 

Preventing HPV

Prevention strategies are required to reduce the incidence of HPV in Africa. There are several prevention techniques that may yield effective results. This includes providing patients easier access to the HPV vaccine. The vaccine is able to provide a significant reduction in the risk of being infected with the STI. 

Patients also need to be made aware of the benefits that come with practicing safe sex. The use of a condom may also further help to reduce the risk of spreading the HPV infection. Patients should also try to minimize the number of different sexual partners they have. 

Treatment For HPV

HPV has no specific cure, which is why prevention is so important. Warts that developed can be treated. A salicylic acid solution is often used to treat these warts. Imiquimod is another topical treatment that may be used to treat warts caused by HPV. 

There are certain surgical options that patients may opt for too. This includes cryotherapy and electrocautery. Surgical removal of the wart is another option that could be considered. 


HPV is considered a serious problem in several regions of Africa. Growing concern about the disease has been reported by the WHO and other organizations. Along with an increase in HPV, researchers note a concerning the prevalence of cervical cancer among women in the country. Patients should be educated about early symptoms and take appropriate action on their side. 


Is It Possible To Get Infected With Corona Virus Through Sex?

Is It Possible To Get Infected With Corona Virus Through Sex? Image

This article might have outdated information. Please follow links in the article or use other means (like your regional health authorities) to find updated information about the spread, virology and complications of Covid-19!

With more than 70 countries infected with Covid-19, this extremely delicate and contagious illness continues to spread. Because of its relatively new nature, many people are ill-equipped to prevent it. But, experts suggest, knowing exactly what the coronavirus is capable of can help people avoid it altogether. 

That’s exactly why we’ve decided to give you the proper guidance. If you’ve recently started dating again and you are worried you might get infected, it’s important to know how this illness gets transmitted in the first place. 

Here, we will focus on everything you need to know on Covid-19 transmission and whether it can get transmitted through sexual contact.

We recommend: A useful guide about improving mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Viral Droplet Matters, Here Is Why

Before we can talk about the connection between sexual contact and coronavirus, there is one thing you should know about, and that is the viral droplet. A virus is, in fact, a very small microbe that will stick itself to a cell, take it over, multiply, and move on to a new cell to find another host. This is the lifecycle of any virus, including Covid-19. 

A virus without a host can’t get transported via droplets of saliva or mucus. The droplet is the one that contains all those viral particles of the virus. When you sneeze, laugh, sing, breathe, etc., you eject these droplets either from the mouth or nose. They can end up on another person, object, or on the floor. For an individual to get infected, these droplets have to enter the body through the mouth, nose, or eyes. 

Can Corona Get Transmitted Through Sex?

When you talk about sex and Covid-19, you need to consider these droplets. Since these droplets carry the infection in the saliva and mucus, when you are kissing, you actually swap the infected spit. 

The droplets will then transmit to the uninfected individual, and the virus will start to invade the cells and multiply. When you see it from this perspective, then yes. You can transmit the virus while kissing during intercourse. 

But, do have in mind, it’s very early to tell if the infection could be transmitted through sexual acts. There isn’t any research or analytics that could confirm that. However, generally speaking, this is NOT a typical sexually transmitted disease, according to WHO (World Health Organization).

How to Avoid This Virus?

According to Prof. Gary Whittaker, at the Cornell University of Veterinary Medicine, this infection can rather easily be destroyed. 

Hygiene is very important. Make sure to wash your hands all the time and avoid close contact with an infected individual. Disinfecting surfaces can also be beneficial. Disinfectants will break down the small microbes and leave them harmless WHO suggests standing at least 3 feet from an infected individual. But, it’s difficult to avoid the virus if it’s being spread through saliva. If you believe to be infected, it’s best to get a checkup. 

Since March the 2nd, statistics show almost 90,000 individuals have been infected, and 3,000 have died.


Cervical Cancer In Africa Linked To Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Cervical Cancer In Africa Linked To Sexually Transmitted Diseases Image

Recent studies report an increase in the prevalence of cervical cancer among women in Africa. Researchers believe that this may be linked to certain sexually transmitted diseases. Women in Africa are urged to undergo frequent testing. This accounts especially for women who are sexually active. Early diagnoses of sexually transmitted diseases help to ensure a more successful treatment plan. 

Cervical Cancer Rates Among African Women

A recent report by WHO Africa provided the latest data on cervical cancer among the African female population. An estimated 68,000 new cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed in the country each year. WHO Africa notes that this is only an estimated figure. There are several healthcare challenges faced by African women. With this in mind, accurate figures maybe even larger than the current estimates. 

The major concern is that cervical cancer is often considered a preventable condition. Unfortunately, it still remains a major concern among the African female population. At least 22% of cancers diagnosed among women in Africa are cervical cancer. 

Human Papillomavirus And Cervical Cancer

Current estimates for cervical cancer seem to have a connection to the rate of sexually transmitted diseases in African countries. Research suggests that one of the most critical causes that women need to realize is human papillomavirus. Also called HPV, an estimated 70% of cervical cancer cases in Africa are now thought to be associated with this STD. 

Early detection of human papillomavirus is a key element in reducing the risk of cervical cancer. Unfortunately, many women will only discover their HPV infection once cervical cancer has already developed. With this in mind, sexually active women need to ensure they are frequently tested for HPV, as well as other common STDs in Africa. 

Warts are the most common symptom associated with an HPV infection. These warts will most often affect the genital area of the woman. African women are urged to be on the lookout for such warts. This becomes a major concern among women who are sexually active today. 

Testing for HPV infection is a relatively easy and straightforward process. In some cases, HPV may be diagnosed through visual inspection of warts that have developed. There are additional tests that can also be performed. This can help the doctor make a more accurate diagnosis. Other possible causes behind warts can also be ruled out when additional tests are ordered. 

An effective HPV vaccine is available. This can help to effectively reduce the risk of African women. Safe sex is another important preventative strategy to consider. 


Cervical cancer is common in Africa, along with the STD human papillomavirus. These two have a close relation. The World Health Organization urge women in Africa to undergo frequent HPV testing. Appropriate measures are required to assist in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer among the African female population. Early diagnosis plays a key role in assuring such a goal can be reached. 


HIV Patients Exposed to A Higher Risk of Coronavirus

HIV Patients Exposed to A Higher Risk of Coronavirus Image

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus – a deadly virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, better known as AIDS. Transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse, HIV/AIDS is one of the main deadly sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), although there are other possible ways of transmission. 

HIV patients in fear for their lives because of the new coronavirus

HIV, as deadly and dangerous as it is, is not uncommon. Back in 2018, there were approximately 37.9 million people affected by HIV around the world. 36.2 million of those were adults and around 1.7 million were children younger than 15 years. 

And it seems that it is Africa where most of the infected population with HIV – both adults and children, live. As of 2014, in Ghana, Africa, alone there have been roughly 150,000 people diagnosed with HIV, and the assumption is that the numbers are even greater because of the well-known fear that HIV/AIDS is treated within Africa. But what is even more unfortunate is the fact that around 91% of the HIV-infected children live in Africa. 

HIV-positive individuals and AIDS patients are constantly living in fear for their lives because of how fragile their immune system is. And although therapy does help a lot, they are still treated as chronically ill individuals. 

Now, with the new coronavirus outbreak since early December, which first happened in Wuhan, China, it seems that this fear is even greater, and for a good reason, that is. Because of their poor immune system, HIV/AIDS patients are exposed to a higher risk of getting infected with the new coronavirus as compared to the general population.

The problem is that the coronavirus, although it causes flu-like symptoms, is also the cause of many death cases. In fact, as of 27th March, there have been roughly 28,269 deaths due to the coronavirus on a global level. In South Africa, there have been 1,170 infected and only one case of death. In Egypt, there have been around 536 infected and no dead, which is certainly good news. 

Because of their weakened immune system, these individuals are unable to fight off the infection, thus being exposed to a higher risk of not only being affected by it but also being affected by worse complications and possibly even death. That is why any chronically ill patients, including AIDS patients, are warned against the dangers of coronavirus.

They are advised to stay in self-isolation and practice social distancing as two of the best prevention methods that we know of when it comes to the coronavirus. Awareness has to be raised if we are interested in protecting these and any other chronically ill patients from the deadly coronavirus that does not seem to stop affecting more and more people all around the world, including Africa. 


Fish Shortage in Kenya Leads to Increase in Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Fish Shortage in Kenya Leads to Increase in Sexually Transmitted Diseases Image

Africa is one of the countries where high rates of sexually transmitted diseases have been registered. Although the lack of knowledge, the feelings of shame, and considering sexual health as a taboo topic has its influence over these high rates, it is a troubling system that may contribute the most. Today we will discuss the system of trading sex-for-fish.  

The sex-for-fish trade in Kenya

If you take a walk on the shores of Lake Victoria in Kenya, you will notice women giving empty bags to the fishermen, before they take off and go fishing either at night or very early in the morning. Then, when the fishermen come back, you will see their bags of fresh fish lying next to them in their boats.

The women, however, cannot get their hands on that fresh fish for a low price. The price of that fresh fish is actually not measured in money, but rather in sexual favors. The fishermen in Kenya are famous for taking advantage of these poor women, trading sexual favors for fish. 

Lately, more gay men are seen doing the same thing – trading sex for fish in order to survive. The fish that they later receive in return serve as either food for their families or stock to be sold in order to make for a living. It is an awful system that hundreds of men and women take part in, selling their bodies in order to survive.

How the fish shortage in Kenya leads to a noticeable increase in sexually transmitted diseases

Throughout the last couple of years, there has been a fish shortage around Lake Victoria in Kenya. That is why the fishermen go on fishing around Tanzania and Uganda as well. But that is surprisingly not the only thing that they are doing there. 

There, these fishermen are also engaging in the fish-for-sex system, getting involved in sexual encounters with different women and gay men for that matter. This process not only degrades women, but it also exposes them to the high risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including the much-dangerous HIV/AIDS. 

There has been a noticeable increase in sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. In fact, Kenya is considered to be one of the six HIV “high burden” countries in Africa. It is all about how easily HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, for that matter, are spread, affecting more people in different parts of Africa. 

Luckily, there have been more and more empowered women who have boat ownership and are skillful fishmongers with business skills. They usually have a higher income, so they no longer have to trade sex for fish, thus working against the spreading of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. However, their number is still significantly smaller compared to the number of women who are still part of the sex-for-fish system.


Trading sexual favors for fish is a part of the everyday lives of many women who have been living in Kenya. HIV/AIDS has also become a part of the lives of more women who have been living in this part of the world as well. Because of that, an increase in sexually transmitted diseases has been registered throughout the years.


Common Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Nigeria

Common Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Nigeria Image

From genital ulcers, infertility, difficulty urinating, to horrifying pain – the common sexually transmitted diseases can cause quite a variety of symptoms. Although doctors and researchers keep warning us against these diseases and how important it is to get protected against them, there are still parts of the world, such as Nigeria, where the rates of the common sexually transmitted diseases are incredibly high.

The most common sexually transmitted diseases in Nigeria

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites, spread by having unprotected sexual intercourse – oral, vaginal, and/or anal. Some STDs do not have a cure, but one thing that all STDs share is the difficult symptoms and the dangerous complications that can happen if their symptoms are left untreated.

Some of the most common STDs in Nigeria are:

  • Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a common STD in Nigeria, affecting around 9.6% of its population. The prevalence of Chlamydia is especially high in Lagos, affecting around 51% of the people – both men and women living there. It is because of the lack of symptoms at the early stage of Chlamydia, that makes this disease so difficult to be detected and properly treated. This also increases the risk of spreading the infection by those who are unaware of either its existence or ignorant about the health risks that it poses. 

  • Gonorrhea

Back in 1963, Lagos was found to be the highest carrier of the gonorrhea infection in the world. Now, decades after, the rates of gonorrhea in Nigeria are still dangerously high, although we see a continuous decline in most countries worldwide. In fact, gonorrhea is considered to be the most common STD in this country. According to recent surveys, the prevalence of gonorrhea is considered to be as high as 28.1%.

  • Syphilis 

Another common STD in Nigeria is syphilis. Many people who got infected with syphilis are asymptomatic, it is easy for this infection to be spreading, while its rates keep on increasing. A 1989 study showed that when tested, 1.5% of the pregnant women in Lagos have tested positive for syphilis. Syphilis is a highly dangerous disease during pregnancy since it can be easily transmitted to the baby in the womb, causing horrifying complications such as premature death.


Nigeria is one of the countries with high rates of STDs. Unfortunately, the people of Nigeria are not speared of any STD; however, there are some STDs such as gonorrhea, syphilis, and Chlamydia, that are more common than others. With that being said, it is of vital importance to spread the word about getting tested, protected, and properly treated against any of these common STDs.


Circumcision Reduce STD Diseases In Africa

Circumcision Reduce STD Diseases In Africa Image

There is a rising concern related to the presence of sexually transmitted diseases among the African population. Among the various conditions currently affecting the population, one of the most concerning noted in several scientific publications comes down to HIV. The World Health Organization is now suggesting the implementation of a strategy that recommends circumcisions among male patients. According to the World Health Organization, the use of circumcisions may provide a reduction in the risk and prevalence of acquired sexually transmitted infections among the local population in Africa. 

WHO Recommends Circumcisions For African Men

Following the recognition of HIV as a healthcare epidemic in African countries, the World Health Organization has decided to step in. The idea behind the movements from the World Health Organization is to implement preventive measures. This may assist in reducing the rate at which new cases of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections are diagnosed. 

The World Health Organization has announced that they now advise men to consider circumcision as a way of preventing or at least reducing the risk of sexually transmitted diseases. 

According to an official publication by the World Health Organization, there are studies that have already proven circumcision as an effective way of reducing the risk that a patient has when it comes to the transmission of HIV. In fact, the WHO reports a 60% reduction in the risk of HIV in a male patient who had a circumcision. The statistics have been conducted on men who have heterosexual sexual intercourse. 

The WHO does further state that male circumcision is not a complete solution. The use of this particular strategy may assist in providing partial protection. Men are advised to consider the process of undergoing circumcision as simply one preventive strategy that they utilize. The organization continues to explain that men will need to continue using additional preventive strategies in order to effectively reduce the risk of acquiring HIV. 

Even though this recommendation comes from WHO, there are some researchers and medical experts who do not seem to agree. A publication in the Journal of Public Health in Africa refers to WHO advising men to undergo circumcisions as a way of distracting the public from other preventive strategies that could be implemented too. This paper also describes circumcision as an ineffective way of potentially reducing the risk of HIV transmission through heterosexual sexual intercourse. 

STDs and Circumcision

Sexually transmitted diseases are considered highly prevalent in Africa. HIV is one of the most frequently noted STDs, but other diseases, such as herpes, Chlamydia, and gonorrhea still remain an important concern among the local population. New suggestions from the WHO advises men to undergo circumcision as a method of reducing the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases. 


Whiteheads On Penis: Causes And Treatment

Whiteheads On Penis: Causes And Treatment Image

There is a rising incidence of certain sexually transmitted infections that can affect the genitals of male patients. Human papillomavirus is one of these conditions, affecting an estimated 49% of the male population. Studies also suggest that about 35% of men may be infected with a higher risk of human papillomavirus. When whiteheads develop on the penis, men will often consider it a sign of a sexually transmitted infection first. This can be worrisome for a man. It is important that men understand whiteheads on the penis do not always mean they have been infected with an STD. 

What Causes Whiteheads On Penis?

There are a few factors that can cause a man to develop whiteheads on his penis. The most common would often be acne – which means the bumps are literally whiteheads. Acne is most commonly found on the face and the back, as well as the chest. It is, however, possible for whiteheads to develop on the skin of the penis too. 

If whiteheads develop on the penis, they will usually be present at the base and shaft of the patient’s penis. 

There are other causes for bumps and whiteheads to develop on the penis too, however. 

Similar to whiteheads, many of the other causes behind these bumps are considered harmless. Some of these examples would include:

  • Pearly penile papules
  • Fordyce spots
  • Tyson glands
  • Ingrown hairs
  • Molluscum contagiosum
  • Lichen planus

While many cases of whiteheads on the penis would be considered harmless, there are some cases where the man may be infected with an STD. Men should consider the following conditions a possibility too:

  • Genital wards (human papillomavirus)
  • Syphilis
  • Genital herpes

Treatment Options For Whiteheads On Penis

When whiteheads on the penis are caused by acne or another less serious problem, then the condition may clear up on its own. Still, some men may want to find ways to get rid of these whiteheads faster. There are a few potential treatment options that a man may consider. 

Men should avoid touching the specific region of their penis where the whiteheads are. This can cause the whiteheads to spread. Hygiene is also important, as this can help to prevent a build-up of oils and bacteria. Men should also not pop whiteheads. This may lead to scarring, as well as irritation. 

There is some medication that can be used to treat whiteheads on the penis too. 

Whiteheads And STDs

Men who develop whiteheads on the penis can sometimes be infected with an STD. There are, however, a lot of cases where these whiteheads are not something to be concerned about. These are actually very common among the male population and often do not require treatment. Men should still recognize the signs of something more serious.