Chancroid In Africa

Chancroid In Africa Image

Some sexually transmitted diseases are more commonly known and more prevalent than others. On the other hand, there are a few STDs that aren’t mentioned as common, yet still poses as a threat to certain populations. An excellent would be Chancroid, a type of sexually transmitted disease that is more prevalent in certain countries. Chancroid in Africa, for example, continues to pose a serious problem for the local population. 

The Impact Of Chancroid In Africa

Chancroid still remains a relatively common problem in a number of countries throughout the world. This is a sexually transmitted infection. It generally causes ulcers in the genital region. The condition is prevalent among the African population. There is also a concern regarding the prevalence of Chancroid in Asia, as well as in the Latin America region. 

In the 1970s, genital ulcers linked to Chancroid was found among 60% of the sub-Saharan African population. Medical experts were able to reduce this to lower than 15% by the year 2005. The disease was considered undetectable in both Kenya and Zambia by the year 2010. This does not mean it has been wiped out – since there are still a few countries in Africa facing a Chancroid epidemic. 

Symptoms Of Chancroid

Symptoms of Chancroid is sometimes associated with the signs of other sexually transmitted infections. The most common symptom that a person would have when infected with Chancroid is usually an open sore that develops on the genitals. The open sores can sometimes also develop around the genitals. 

The open sore is generally called an ulcer. When the cause is confirmed to be Chancroid, the sores will be referred to as chancroids instead. 

The ulcer that develops is likely to bleed. A contagious fluid can be secreted from the open sore. When the fluid comes into contact with another person, the Haemophilus ducreyi, which is the bacteria behind Chancroid, spreads to the other individual. 

In most patients, the ulcer that develops once the person is infected with Chancroid will be painful. 

Can Chancroid Be Treated?

Due to the bacterial nature of Chancroid, the condition is often considered treatable. A doctor will usually need to prescribe a dose of antibiotics for the patient. The use of antibiotics may help to eliminate the bacteria causing the infection. Antibiotics could also potentially reduce the scarring that tends to happen when the ulcer heals. 

Chancroid Connection With HIV

Chancroid is not as commonly mentioned as chlamydia, or perhaps even HIV. The disease does, however, still remain a serious threat to certain countries, such as Africa. Infection with the Chancroid sexually transmitted infection also seems to make a person more likely to obtain HIV, further contributing to the HIV epidemic that the world is facing. 

References

https://www.news-medical.net/health/Chancroid-Epidemiology.aspx

Whiteheads On Penis: Causes And Treatment

Whiteheads On Penis: Causes And Treatment Image

There is a rising incidence of certain sexually transmitted infections that can affect the genitals of male patients. Human papillomavirus is one of these conditions, affecting an estimated 49% of the male population. Studies also suggest that about 35% of men may be infected with a higher risk of human papillomavirus. When whiteheads develop on the penis, men will often consider it a sign of a sexually transmitted infection first. This can be worrisome for a man. It is important that men understand whiteheads on the penis do not always mean they have been infected with an STD. 

What Causes Whiteheads On Penis?

There are a few factors that can cause a man to develop whiteheads on his penis. The most common would often be acne – which means the bumps are literally whiteheads. Acne is most commonly found on the face and the back, as well as the chest. It is, however, possible for whiteheads to develop on the skin of the penis too. 

If whiteheads develop on the penis, they will usually be present at the base and shaft of the patient’s penis. 

There are other causes for bumps and whiteheads to develop on the penis too, however. 

Similar to whiteheads, many of the other causes behind these bumps are considered harmless. Some of these examples would include:

  • Pearly penile papules
  • Fordyce spots
  • Tyson glands
  • Ingrown hairs
  • Molluscum contagiosum
  • Lichen planus

While many cases of whiteheads on the penis would be considered harmless, there are some cases where the man may be infected with an STD. Men should consider the following conditions a possibility too:

  • Genital wards (human papillomavirus)
  • Syphilis
  • Genital herpes

Treatment Options For Whiteheads On Penis

When whiteheads on the penis are caused by acne or another less serious problem, then the condition may clear up on its own. Still, some men may want to find ways to get rid of these whiteheads faster. There are a few potential treatment options that a man may consider. 

Men should avoid touching the specific region of their penis where the whiteheads are. This can cause the whiteheads to spread. Hygiene is also important, as this can help to prevent a build-up of oils and bacteria. Men should also not pop whiteheads. This may lead to scarring, as well as irritation. 

There is some medication that can be used to treat whiteheads on the penis too. 

Whiteheads And STDs

Men who develop whiteheads on the penis can sometimes be infected with an STD. There are, however, a lot of cases where these whiteheads are not something to be concerned about. These are actually very common among the male population and often do not require treatment. Men should still recognize the signs of something more serious. 

References

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6210641/

WHO Revise STD Treatment Guidelines As Threat Of Antibiotic Resistance Escalates

WHO Revise STD Treatment Guidelines As Threat Of Antibiotic Resistance Escalates Image

Many sexually transmitted diseases are considered incurable. These conditions are generally simply managed with the appropriate medication. On the other hand, a few infections transferred through sexual intercourse are known to be highly treatable. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), antibiotics are currently considered the standard treatment option for patients with an STI caused by bacteria. The three sexually transmitted infections noted by the World Health Organization include chlamydia, syphilis, and gonorrhea. 

Treatment guidelines for these diseases have recently been updated by the World Health Organization. The WHO encourages all countries to immediately start implementing the new treatment guidelines. Changes were made following the increase in cases linked to antibiotic resistance. 

Updated Treatment Guidelines By WHO For Bacterial STIs

The World Health Organization recently raised concerns regarding three specific sexually transmitted infections that are becoming more difficult to treat. The three infections noted include gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. 

All three of these conditions are treated with antibiotics. 

The WHO explains that many of these conditions go undiagnosed. When a person fails to obtain tests and get a diagnosis for these infections early on, they can cause damage to the person’s general well-being. 

In some cases, these conditions can even cause life-threatening complications to occur. 

New strains of gonorrhea have been detected that seem to have multidrug-resistance. This means the standard antibiotics used to treat the condition is no longer working. The bacterial infection continues to cause harm to a patient’s body even after they have been treated with the antibiotics that have been used for gonorrhea during the last few decades. 

This led to the compilation of new treatment guidelines by the WHO. The organization has now urged all countries to take notice of the new treatment guidelines. The implementation of the new treatment methods for gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydia should assist in reducing the more serious complications that people tend to experience. 

The WHO also encourages patients to take appropriate actions to reduce their risk of being infected with these bacterial diseases. 

Healthcare professionals from the WHO explained that the use of condoms is currently considered an effective preventative strategy for the general population to follow. Patients are advised to use condoms when they participate in sexual activities with a partner. Frequent testing for these three bacterial infections is also crucial to ensure treatment is implemented at an early stage of the disease. 

Antibiotic Resistance Became Very Serious

Treatment for bacterial infections that transmit through sexual intercourse generally includes the use of antibiotics. Following episodes of increased antibiotic resistance cases throughout the world, the WHO has recently updated its guidelines for the treatment of three particular bacterial STIs. The implementation of these guidelines is critical in the prevention of a further escalation regarding antibiotic resistance.  

References

https://www.who.int/en/news-room/detail/30-08-2016-growing-antibiotic-resistance-forces-updates-to-recommended-treatment-for-sexually-transmitted-infections

Why Are STD Rates So High In Liberia?

Why Are STD Rates So High In Liberia Image

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been the reason for the high mortality rates and the declined quality of life all around the world for many years now. However, with the discovery of penicillin and other antibiotics, we have successfully reduced the high STD rates. There are still some countries such as Liberia, where the STD rates are dangerously high. 

How common are STDs in Liberia?

In 2016, there has been a total of 2900 new HIV cases, whereas 2800 people have lost their lives because of this life-threatening disease. HIV/AIDS is considered to be one of the leading causes of death in Liberia. But it is not only the rates of HIV/AIDS that are high – other STDs such as syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia are often diagnosed among the people in Libera as well. Syphilis, for instance, had killed 124 people back in 2017.

The reasons behind the high STD rates in Liberia

As we all know, it is the early diagnosis and the proper treatment using a combination of prescribed medications that is the answer to the continuous decline of STD rates around the world. However, it seems that for the people of Liberia, including their doctors and medical practitioners, traditional medicine is the answer rather than following the advice that WHO (World Health Organization) is providing us with.

It was as early as 1992 when a group of researchers found out what has been causing the continuous growth of the already high STD rates. They published their findings with the hope of changing things as they are. In the study published in Social Science & Medicine, they talked about the use of traditional medicine for the purposes of treating the common STDs.

Even the worst of them have been treated with the use of herbal teas and discussed in secrecy because of the common belief that they are dealing with black magic. STDs and sexual health are considered to be taboo in Liberia as well as in many other centuries still, until this day. It is HIV/AIDS that is most often discussed as sorcery and believed that there is no cure for it, despite the existence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) that is widely used in the rest of the world.

Luckily, the home tests for the common STDs have been invented. These tests allow the individual to test himself/herself at home and later receive the results in complete anonymity. This does help the case, especially in countries, such as Liberia, where talking about STDs and sexual health is linked to feelings of shame and blame. Still, the need for a proper treatment instead of the use of traditional medicine continues to exist. And until a change is not introduced in their usual practice of traditional medicine, we are only looking into a horrifying and rapid increase in mortality rates due to STDs.

Mortality Rates Are On The Rise

Liberia is not excluded from being one of the countries around the world that faces struggles with the common STDs. In fact, Liberia is considered to be one of the countries with the highest STD rates as well as high mortality rates due to the common STDs, especially HIV/AIDS. The reason for these high rates being the fact that until this day, STDs are believed to be sorcery that can only be treated with the common practice of traditional medicine.

References

https://www.unaids.org/en/regionscountries/countries/liberia

https://www.worldlifeexpectancy.com/liberia-syphilis

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/027795369290048U

New Discovered Origin of the Herpes Simplex Virus from Africa

New Discovered Origin of the Herpes Simplex Virus from Africa Image Promising Results of Herpes Vaccine HSV529 in Phase Trial 1

Recent research has shown that more recent events, which include the eighteenth-century slave trade led to the viral dispersal of the herpes simplex virus. The herpes virus is an infection that exists in two strains: HSV virus type 1 and type 2. The former is commonly transmitted by oral contact and infect its victims around the mouth. But the type 2 HSV is transmitted sexually. 

Until now, there have been lots of misconceptions and assumptions about the origin of this virus in humans. But recently, an Italian team conducted a study on the herpes virus and discovered some surprising facts about its origin and history. 

Type 1 of the herpes virus primarily affects the skin and causes orofacial lesions. While the type 2 herpes virus, which is best described as a sexually transmitted disease is the primary cause of genital herpes experience by many people. 

In recent years, the virus has spread out its tentacles and affected more than 3.7 billion people globally. In the long run, the infection can lead to fatal consequences for anyone. 

During pregnancy, a pregnant woman who is carrying the virus can infect an unborn child upon delivery, and the consequences can be fatal for the newborn.

The Origin of The Herpes Virus

A lot of factors are involved to guarantee a better understanding of the virus. To start with, one needs to grasp some information about its origin and history. To this effect, a research team conducted a study on the virus recently. And the results indicated that the virus might be from a more complex origin than expected. 

It was discovered that the two virus strains (HPV 1 and 2) have firm roots in Africa. It was, therefore, necessary to determine the time in history when the strains left the African continent.

Type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex virus had high similarity with the ones that infected apes in Africa many centuries ago. It is believed that the virus later evolved to infect humans.

The University of Milan and the IRCCS Medea collaborated for the study to become a success. You will find the published version in Molecular Biology and Evolution. Since the virus evolved with their hosts to infect humans, it was apparent that Africa was where the herpes virus type 1 and 2 originated. 

How The Slave Trade Promoted The Spread of The Virus

The mass migration of millions of Africans from the continent into the United States and other countries in Europe made the viral strains that infect many today to leave the continent centuries ago and spread to other parts of the world, including Asia and Europe.

With the aid of technology and archaeological discoveries, scientists have been able to estimate the pace at which these viral strains evolved and gradually infected millions of people worldwide. To date, the herpes simplex virus is among the topmost deadly viral diseases fast ravaging the human population and threatening to wipe it out of extinction if ignored.

Manuela Sironi, who is the study co-author of the research project, opined that the team leveraged some statistically precise methods that permit the dating of most viral origins and how they dispersed. He also said that from the conclusions derived in the study, it was discovered that the strains of the herpes simplex virus type 1 migrated from Africa about 5000 years ago. And the migration of the viral strains of the herpes type 2 didn’t occur until recently during the eighteenth century. 

From the data derived in the study, it was obvious that the existence of the slave trade and mass migration of many African citizens led to the widespread of the viral strains. That is why the prevalence of these viral strains is now higher in the Americas, followed by Africa and less dispersed in other regions of the world.

The fact remains that before the colonization of many African countries, these viral infections existed as minor strains and mostly affected animals and just a few humans. But the emergence of the slave trade into the Americas generated lots of unhealthy habits, unsafe practices, and the mass sexual exploitation that took place led to the aversion of these viral strains from animals to humans. They spread quickly due to unhygienic living conditions too, a condition that was predominant during the slave trade era and pre-colonization.

As these migrants landed in other countries, they were mostly exploited as slave workers and worked for their masters in factories, mills, and farmlands. Subject to an inadequate system of living and untold hardship, this further boosted the longevity of the virus and made it spread easier than before. During this time, humans were unaware of the existence of this deadly disease and its mode of operation. 

Not until many years later, during the era of great discoveries in technology and medicine, did scientists and medical experts conducted research that led to the development of these viral strains.

Although various studies have been conducted on viral existence in humans, lack of adequate archaeological information, history data, made it almost impossible to reach valid conclusions. But, it was not until recently when these group of Italian researchers embarked on this study, that a shocking revelation was made public. 

What Does This All Mean?

It is now a known fact that the slave trade introduced several pathogens into the American continent, of which the herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 are just a few of them. Another pathogen worthy of mention is the Yellow Fever virus. But the majority of these pathogens remained confined to tropical areas for many centuries and only began to spread among humans when they perceived a fertile ground among the populace.

It is believed that further studies will help researchers to gain insight into the resistant nature of the herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2.

References: 

https://www.sciencetimes.com/articles/7606/20151101/who-more-3-7-billion-people-world-herpes.htm

https://academic.oup.com/mbe/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/molbev/msaa001/5698714?redirectedFrom=fulltext

http://slaveryandremembrance.org/articles/article/?id=A0002

How STDs Affect Quality of Life

How STDs Affect Quality of Life Image

The scourge of sexually transmitted diseases or STDs known globally is endemic. It is an estimate that over 20 million people are living with HIV in East and Southern Africa alone. If other regions of the African continent are to be included, that figure is colossal. Besides the HIV/ AIDS problem, there is a silent epidemic that is devastating the African society daily. The BBC News WHO statistics show that the prevalence of curable sexually transmitted diseases rate at one million new infections daily.

What is troubling is the age demography and gender of the most affected groups of society. In most cases, it is the reproductive bracket of between 16 and 49 years that suffers. In a recent forum in Rwanda, African first ladies met to discuss the impact of STDs on the lives of women and children. 

On this platform, we shall look into the effects of the STDS on the quality of life. This is most notably in the African context.

  • Psychological Trauma

This is the first thing that affects the victim. Africa is still a pretty conservative society when it comes to matters of social morality. Ironically, it has the highest number of sufferers. This paradox is the principal cause of the frustrations of most victims. The first thing one feels is a shame. Sexual infections like chlamydia and syphilis bring about serious manifestations in the genital area. 

The stigma that comes with opening up can be devastating. Family members and the immediate support base distance from the victim. When this happens, one ends up with nothing to lean on. In some cases, even health professionals trigger shame by assuming the sinful life of the victim. Ultimately, the sufferers become social pariahs and isolate themselves. That can lead to mental disturbances in victims. 

  • Reproductive Health Problems

The social fabric of African society is primarily patriarchal. Thus some communities may condone men to have multiple sexual partners. Women are on the receiving end of this practice. The reproductive effects of STDs in women are more severe than in men. The clinical symptoms gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis come out when some of the reproductive organs are on their decline. 

In the wake of these situations, many women contract STDs and suffer silently. The health facilities in most areas lack the necessary medication on the same. Again, the stigma in society pushes people to go for self-medication. This opens the way for more destruction to the internal reproductive system. Untreated STDs cause numerous consequences. The most endemic is infertility in both men and women. Numerous families end up in divorce or separation due to the lack of children.

  • Social Disintegration

The extent of poverty in the communities is a primary factor in the spread of STDS. Men prey on young girls and vulnerable women for sex in exchange for financial favors. Since the men are the financiers here, the young girls have little say on the matter. This leaves them exposed to STDs and HIV. It is alarming to see the high rate of school dropouts in girls due to pregnancy. The perpetrators of these acts usually are grown-up men.

While several organizations are working to educate young girls about STDs and financial empowerment to women, success is still low. It is this equality gap that brings about the vulnerability in girls and women. In poor settlements, girls rarely finish their studies. This contributes to the high number of sex workers. The lack of protective knowledge also gives rise to the spread of STDs and the ultimate disintegration of society.

  • Economic Strains

On a personal level, victims of STDs use a vast amount of their finances to treat the diseases. In most cases, they do this in total discreet silence. For those with HIV, the burden is more significant. The ARVs are more expensive than treatable gonorrhea or chlamydia. Though gonorrhea is easy to treat, the reinfection makes it difficult for most treatment. So, misuse of drugs is gradually giving rise to drug-resistant strands of gonorrhea. Subsequently, that will give rise to the cost of medication by the patients.

In some countries, the government offers subsidies in the medication. Though this is good, the amount of money that goes to the medicine deprives other crucial sectors of the economy of funds. In 2015, Swaziland spent USD 16 million on the treatment of HPV. With a per capita background of USD 2,598, it is a high cost for a population of less than two million. 

 In South Africa alone, 71,000 people died in 2018 of HIV related deaths. This deprives the country of the most productive segment of the economy of human resources. Without the human resource, the economy will have a reduction in growth.

  • Poor Societal Growth

It is a result of the lack of prevention that gives rise to this factor. Six percent of the pregnancies in Southern Africa report cases of syphilis. The deaths resulting from the STDs are enormous. With many parents dying of AIDS, young people see the engagement in unsafe sex as a way to gain meaningful employment. Oblivious of the dangers, the cycle of infections continue. This places the parental responsibilities on the grandparents who are less economically viable to cater for the families. 

In other parts, private organizations are doing an excellent job in sex education and rehabilitation of young girls. But, the rise of commercial sex workers in urban centers is slowing the battle to curb the STDs. Traditional myths and societal norms are making STDs part of our daily lives. In some societies, men believe that having sex with a young virgin will cleanse you of syphilis or gonorrhea. This increases the cases of insecurity in impoverished settlements. 

References

https://www.healthline.com/health/sexually-transmitted-diseases

https://www.bbc.com/news/health-48542403

https://allafrica.com/stories/201912040006.html

https://www.everydayhealth.com/stds/stigma-stds-mental-health-lgbtq-youth-whats-connection/

https://www.webmd.com/women/features/women_and_chlamydia#1

https://www.fhi360.org/sites/default/files/webpages/Modules/STD/s1pg11.htm

https://www.avert.org/news/urbanisation-rural-uganda-driving-hiv-country

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0213224

https://www.nation.co.ke/news/gonorrhoea-becoming-harder-to-treat/1056-4006696-11o12ea/index.html

https://www.itg.be/E/Article/syphilis-almost-eliminated-almost-everywhere-except-in-africa

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0177762

https://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-around-world/sub-saharan-africa/south-africa

https://srh.bmj.com/content/46/1/73

Herpes in Nigeria

Common Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Nigeria Image

Herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that targets the mouth and reproductive organs of the body. The disease is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), which has two types: type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). 

HSV-1 is known to cause oral herpes, which infects the lips and mouth. Symptoms include cold sores and fever blisters. HSV-1 is not considered an STD by many healthcare experts, but it is still a serious health concern.

HSV-2, better known as genital herpes, is more severe than its oral counterpart. It affects the genital area, unlike HSV-1, which is limited to the mouth and causes lesions, including blisters and sores, on the skin. HSV-2 can only be contracted by skin-on-skin contact with an infected person. To contract HSV-2, you must come into direct contact with either the mucous membranes from or an exposed cut of an infected individual.

Having one type of HSV does not guarantee that you have the other one too. The two types act independently of each other and even target different areas. However, it is still possible to have both if you contract them at the same time, but one cannot cause the other.

Herpes in Nigeria

Nigeria is in the midst of a healthcare crisis; the rates of genital herpes in Nigeria are higher than in any other country with an estimate of 77.8% of adults being carriers of HSV-2. Older people have a higher prevalence of the disease, with the 51-60 year age group having the greatest rate of disease occurrence. The rates of prevalence are higher in unemployed people than in those with jobs. 

Pregnant women also experience cases of HSV-2. A survey carried out in Benin, Nigeria, showed that a staggering 46.3% of consenting pregnant women from a sample population were HSV-2 positive. 

Diagnosis of Herpes

Herpes is diagnosed by either one or a combination of the following methods:

  • Viral Culture: A lab test is conducted on a sore or tissue sample from the patient.
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): This method is used to replicate your DNA from a sample of your blood, sore tissue, or spinal fluid. The resulting DNA is then tested for HSV.
  • Blood test: a blood sample is tested for the presence of HSV antibodies.

An expert physician, especially one working in a region densely affected by herpes, can also diagnose the disease based on a simple physical exam.

Portable Herpes Test Kits

Due to the strong prevalence of HSV in Nigeria, the government and many organizations have made efforts to make self-examination common. Luckily, this can easily be done with the help of portable herpes test kits. 

These kits contain testing materials like cotton swabs and test tubes, as well as shipping envelopes. A person who suspects an infection must collect either a sore tissue sample or mucus sample and send it to the given address marked on the kit inside the special envelope provided inside the package. After a few days, you can access the test results online.

If you’re worried about being infected, but feel uncomfortable about going to the hospital, this is the perfect choice for you!

Challenges Associated with Treating Herpes in Nigeria 

Nigeria is suffering from a herpes epidemic. Despite efforts from the World Health Organization (WHO) and other NGOs, the virus still runs rampant amongst the Nigerian people. There are several challenges associated with the eradication of HSV in Nigeria. 

Firstly, Nigeria is a developing country with the highest levels of poverty in the world, overtaking other developing nations like India and Ethiopia. This poverty is the primary reason why it has become so difficult to eliminate herpes from the area. 

Due to poverty, the Nigerian people face a severe shortage of medication as well as testing methods. Their overall lack of education has led to most adults being unaware of the dangers of herpes. This lack of awareness prevents them from practicing safe sex, which increases the likelihood of HSV contraction. 

Those who are aware of the symptoms of HSV often have limited methods of confirming it. There is both a shortage of hospitals and testing kits in the region. Even the efforts made by NGOs are insufficient to confront the healthcare issues faced by the 86.9 million people living in poverty in Nigeria.

Additionally, the shortage of clean water and the prevalence of unhygienic conditions have led to an increase in HSV cases as the majority of Nigerians cannot afford to practice good hygiene.  Due to poverty, many people also cannot afford contraceptives and are thus exposed to diseases that are transmitted through direct contact with genital sores and mucus. 

Interestingly, HSV sometimes appears with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Reports say that HSV-2 makes it easier for people to contract HIV, but making it harder to treat them because of the compromised state HIV puts their immune system in. This is by far the most complicated challenge faced by healthcare providers trying to eliminate HSV in Nigeria. 

An individual affected by HSV-2, as well as HIV, cannot be treated the way a person with only HSV-2 would. Using excessive medication would harm the patient more than help them because of how weak HIV/AIDS has made their body.

Nigeria is severely affected by herpes, which is caused by HSV. It is a viral disease that cannot be treated with antibiotics, making treatment harder than initially anticipated by healthcare experts. The majority of adults in Nigeria suffer from HSV, especially HSV-2, which affects the genital area.

Despite the efforts of multiple NGOs, termination of herpes seems near impossible due to the widespread challenges that affect Nigerians. There is no exact solution for the condition, but medical experts around the world are working towards a cure.

References:

https://www.pulse.ng/lifestyle/beauty-health/genital-herpes-causes-symptoms-and-prevention-of-this-ailment/xnv9z5t

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/319524.php#transmission-of-hsv2

https://allafrica.com/stories/200810140635.html

How STD Affected Economic Development in Africa

How STD Affected Economic Development in Africa Image

Economic development in the African region remains low, and STD risks are an ongoing concern. Out of the 40 million people with HIV, 70% of those infected live in Africa. In 2001, 3 million died from the disease, which made it the fourth deadliest disease on the globe. 

Statistics anticipate a steady decline in the African economy for the following years, but the fiscal crisis due to STDs is unlikely to end. These diseases affect the region on a social and demographic level. Poorer households, children, and women are among the worst affected. 

STDs are arguably the most influential factor for the continent’s economic growth, particularly for poor and developing regions. Africa’s human capital is on a decline, and without adequate health care, preventive methods, nutrition, and medicine, a lot more people will fall victim to STDs

The Demographic-Economic Impact of STDs in Africa

This pandemic affects the economic growth rate in Africa by 2% to up to 4% annually. STDs reduce productivity, labor supply, exports, and increase imports. 

Economic measures, treatment, and prevention programs specifically tailored towards managing these diseases are the key to limiting their effect on the economic growth in the region. 

The Effects of STDs on Labor Productivity

Since STDs have long affected the African region, they’ve massively reduced labor productivity. The annual costs in correlation with the sickness have reduced productivity per employee. The reduction in these costs has lowered profits and competitiveness. 

The decline of the agriculture sector in the African region is a typical example of reduced labor productivity from HIV. Those who carry the infection are unable to work. Individuals who’ve carried STDs for a long time have decreased their fertility rates, which has resulted in a massive collapse in newborns. For the most infected areas, this epidemic has left countless orphans behind, unable to get the education or skills they need to participate in the agriculture sector. 

With the constant increase in mortality rates, there are fewer skilled workers available. With the reduced labor force, the individuals who can work are predominantly the younger generation who lack the skills or knowledge to work in a specific sector, which directly influences the company’s productivity rates. 

As more and more workers take sick leave, productivity is slowly taking a downfall affecting the investments that generate human capital. Since the most affected are women and children, the sectors that focus on employing a general women workforce are at a serious threat of experiencing the economic impact of HIV. 

The Effect of STDs on Labor Supply

STDs or HIV, in particular, affect the labor supply by increasing morbidity and mortality. Certain sectors of the labor market are directly affected. 

In the southern region of the continent, 60% of the workers who work in the mining industry are between 30 to 44 years old, many of whom are infected with STDs. In 2002, records predicted that 15 years in the future, the workforce would decrease by 10%.

Many years later, the impact of the diseases did show a significant change in the workforce, which has forced many companies to find a cost-effective way to reduce the prevalence of HIV and STDs. However, with the increase in health care costs, company-sponsored voluntary testing and counseling programs have become more difficult to implement. 

The Effects of STDs on the Taxable Population

STDs, especially HIV, seriously hinder the taxable population, greatly lowering the available resources for public expenditures like healthcare or educational services. As the tax revenues fall, government incomes slowly decline as well, forcing them to spend more on STD treatments and prevention if they are to create an effective way to get out of the fiscal crisis. 

Each household has to spend more on healthcare services to manage STDs and lose income in the process. The income loss has led to reduced spending, which has taken the investments away from the funeral, healthcare, medication, and education spending. 

According to statistics, households who live with an HIV infected individual spend 50% more on medical expenses than any other non-infected household. Due to the increased costs in treatment, many results in working in the sex industry. The sex industry in the African region adds an additional income to a household. However, it leaves them vulnerable to becoming infected with STDs or transmit the infection onto a sexual partner. 

The Effects of STDs on Exports and Imports

Decreased domestic productivity has a major impact on exports and imports. Decreased life expectancy reduces the GDP in many African regions. From 1990 to 2025, the growth rate is expected to be between 0.56% to 1.47% lower. In 2000, these predictions did show the expected results and had decreased by 0.7% annually from 1990 to 1997. 

There is a massive decline in export income, but a significant increase in imports with expensive medications for STDs and other goods for the healthcare industry coming in at a much higher price. 

As a result, there is no balance between import expenditure and export earnings. This puts a strain on the government budget, resulting in debts by default. To control the debt, African governments rely on international help and economic assistance. 

Government’s Response to STDs in Africa

Multiple governments from the sub-Saharan African region have denied the problem for many years. Some have just recently decided to start addressing the issue. Due to conservative values and underfunding, the prevention of STDs has remained a serious problem in developing regions indirectly affecting the country’s supply chain.

In other words, the STD pandemic in Africa is more than just a medical issue; it’s a major problem for the continent’s economic growth and advancement. Therefore, more medical interventions are necessary to put these diseases under control. Learning about the economic environment in this region can help build sustainable STD programs for managing the conditions.  

References

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1122139/

https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1001869

https://www.cmi.no/publications/786-socio-economic-effects-of-hiv-aids-in-african

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_impact_of_HIV/AIDS

http://www.policyproject.com/pubs/SEImpact/SEImpact_Africa.PDF

How Condoms Saved Africa From STDs

How Condoms Saved Africa From STDs Image

As governments, experts, volunteers, development partners, and various other agencies gather across the southern and eastern Africa, for one common cause, it shows just how important it is to mass distribute condoms as a pivotal strategy for controlling STDs. 

ESA (The East and South Africa), the home to almost 550 million people, has successfully made notable progress in managing STDs, particularly HIV in the region. Since 2018, ESA has experienced 30% fewer HIV infections as opposed to 2010. As of recent statistics, 1 in 3 women now uses condoms, compared to 1 in 4 in 2010. 

Condoms have played a decisive role in preventing STDs, HIV, and unwanted pregnancies in countless countries, including the African continent. The distribution and production of these products have significantly decreased the rates of STDs in sex workers and the general population. 

In fact, the use of condoms is now higher than ever. In western African countries, now 30% of the younger population between the ages of 15 to 24 use a condom regularly. Yet, STDs still remain a serious issue for the entire continent.

The Importance of Condoms in Africa

Despite all the programs and positive progress, ESA is still the most infected region with STDs and HIV on the globe.  

STDs prevalence rates continue to skyrocket, resulting in a massive increase in STD transmission. The most vulnerable individuals are young women, which account for 25% of the STD infections, HIV in particular. This is where condoms play a vital role in preventing STDs and unplanned pregnancies. 

Condoms are a cost-effective method for managing STDs. They have prevented more than 50 million HIV transmissions since the 80s. While 30% of the population now uses condoms, it’s not enough to tackle the epidemic completely. 

Despite the affordable condom prices, the funding for obtaining condoms in the sub-Saharan African region has reduced over the years. To tackle the infection rates and reduce them to 500 000, it’s important for the government to remain committed, increase their investment, and prevention methods available for the general population, in particular, support the demand for condoms.

Higher Condom Supply Is Necessary

Condoms are a must-have product for the African region. They are effective in managing diseases, but they are also convenient and easy to use, and most importantly, don’t cost as much as other alternatives for preventing and treating STDs. However, right now, there is a huge gap between condom supply and people’s needs. For the ESA and sub-Saharan region, the yearly gap is 3 billion condoms, while the need is 6 billion. 

To end the STD epidemic, it’s crucial to lower maternal deaths by 70% for the next ten years. That’s where tackling the supply and demand problem comes into play. At the moment, there are only five manufacturers that produce condoms for the entire African region. That’s not enough to keep up with demand. 

The Interest in Free Condoms Hinders the Private Condom Manufacturing Sector

In other European, Asian, or American countries, free condoms are considered easier to access. However, commercial ones are considered more appealing, better-quality, and more trust-worthy. People would rather choose a commercial condom rather than a free one. This keeps the private sector in a healthy business environment. But, for many African countries, it’s the complete opposite.

According to statistics, some condom users are more than willing to buy condoms. More than 90% of users in Nigeria will pay for these preservatives, which makes it one of the most important products to invest in. But, the interest in preservatives varies from country to country.

Some regions, like Zimbabwe and Kenya, do have individuals who would pay for condoms, but many of them would rather obtain free preservatives rather than commercial ones. 

The reason for that is the scarce funds. Free condoms in Africa, still remain a more popular prevention tool than paid condoms for the majority of the African population. However, the public sector has a limit to providing free condoms, since they heavily depend on donor support.

This is an unsustainable long-term strategy for supplying condoms to the general population, and it significantly hinders the private sector. 

Tackling the Condom Production Problem

With a limited condom production, the regular supply remains a problem for the African region. To keep up with demand, especially with the ESA region, it’s crucial to identify a plan of urgency for manufacturing condoms for the entire population. Local manufacturing is simply not enough to cover the scale of the epidemic. 

Firstly, to prevent the onset of potential STDs or HIV, billions of more condoms should be produced. Secondly, if more companies manufacture the same product, it will add more competition to the market and help keep the low prices. This strategy will also avoid a stock-out, improve supply chain management and local procurement. 

Thirdly, more companies mean more work, and more work provides more jobs. This kind of environment will promote trade in the entire continent, keep the private sector involved, and save the continent’s currency. 

Currently, UNFPA is working with governments, investors, and manufacturers to bring in more developers and partners for the condom manufacturing business in the region and boost the distribution and procurement capabilities.

UNAIDS has already implemented a strategy with ambitious goals to boost the availability of condoms from 2016 to 2021 to up to 20 billion every year. Instead of the current 30% condom use, the interest in preservatives is expected to increase by 90% for both middle and low-income countries. 

New developers will make condoms more available for the general population and will satisfy the supply and demand for such products to control the epidemic of STDs. With more condoms becoming available, it would be much easier for the population to access these products and prevent the onset of STDs.

References

https://www.who.int/hiv/mediacentre/news/condoms-joint-positionpaper/en/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6339129/

https://esaro.unfpa.org/en/news/manufacturing-condoms-africa-urgent-health-and-economic-priority

https://www.unaids.org/en/resources/presscentre/pressreleaseandstatementarchive/2016/february/20160212_condoms

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6339129/