Sexually Transmitted Human Papillomavirus (HPV) In Africa

Sexually Transmitted Human Papillomavirus (HPV) In Africa Image

HPV, or human papillomavirus, is a growing concern. Recent findings suggest a spike in the incidence of HPV diagnosis in the African region. Initial symptoms of the infection are often overlooked. This increases the patient’s risk of developing more serious complications. Currently, a concerning complication includes cervical cancer. 

HPV Incidence Rates In Africa

HPV incidence is increasing according to several reports. Some areas of Africa also seem to be at a higher risk for the infection than others. The highest incidence of HPV is reported in Eastern Africa, with an epidemiology rating of 20.3% among female citizens. In Africa, when all areas are considered, the prevalence of HPV is 18.7% among African women. An estimated 372 million women over the age of 15 in Africa are also considered to be at risk for cervical cancer. 

Recognizing HPV Symptoms Early

Patients who are able to recognize early symptoms of HPV have a higher chance of preventing its complications. For most people, genital warts will be the first symptom to appear. Some people also develop general warts when they are infected with HPV. Two other types of warts can also affect the patient – these include flat and plantar warts. 

The condition can also lead to upper respiratory lesions. Some people develop oral lesions. Cervical cancer is another growing concern related to HPV. There are other cancers that have also been associated with HPV infection. These include cancers affecting the genitals, upper respiratory tract, mouth, and the patient’s anus. 

Preventing HPV

Prevention strategies are required to reduce the incidence of HPV in Africa. There are several prevention techniques that may yield effective results. This includes providing patients easier access to the HPV vaccine. The vaccine is able to provide a significant reduction in the risk of being infected with the STI. 

Patients also need to be made aware of the benefits that come with practicing safe sex. The use of a condom may also further help to reduce the risk of spreading the HPV infection. Patients should also try to minimize the number of different sexual partners they have. 

Treatment For HPV

HPV has no specific cure, which is why prevention is so important. Warts that developed can be treated. A salicylic acid solution is often used to treat these warts. Imiquimod is another topical treatment that may be used to treat warts caused by HPV. 

There are certain surgical options that patients may opt for too. This includes cryotherapy and electrocautery. Surgical removal of the wart is another option that could be considered. 


HPV is considered a serious problem in several regions of Africa. Growing concern about the disease has been reported by the WHO and other organizations. Along with an increase in HPV, researchers note a concerning the prevalence of cervical cancer among women in the country. Patients should be educated about early symptoms and take appropriate action on their side. 


Is It Possible To Get Infected With Corona Virus Through Sex?

Is It Possible To Get Infected With Corona Virus Through Sex? Image

This article might have outdated information. Please follow links in the article or use other means (like your regional health authorities) to find updated information about the spread, virology and complications of Covid-19!

With more than 70 countries infected with Covid-19, this extremely delicate and contagious illness continues to spread. Because of its relatively new nature, many people are ill-equipped to prevent it. But, experts suggest, knowing exactly what the coronavirus is capable of can help people avoid it altogether. 

That’s exactly why we’ve decided to give you the proper guidance. If you’ve recently started dating again and you are worried you might get infected, it’s important to know how this illness gets transmitted in the first place. 

Here, we will focus on everything you need to know on Covid-19 transmission and whether it can get transmitted through sexual contact.

We recommend: A useful guide about improving mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Viral Droplet Matters, Here Is Why

Before we can talk about the connection between sexual contact and coronavirus, there is one thing you should know about, and that is the viral droplet. A virus is, in fact, a very small microbe that will stick itself to a cell, take it over, multiply, and move on to a new cell to find another host. This is the lifecycle of any virus, including Covid-19. 

A virus without a host can’t get transported via droplets of saliva or mucus. The droplet is the one that contains all those viral particles of the virus. When you sneeze, laugh, sing, breathe, etc., you eject these droplets either from the mouth or nose. They can end up on another person, object, or on the floor. For an individual to get infected, these droplets have to enter the body through the mouth, nose, or eyes. 

Can Corona Get Transmitted Through Sex?

When you talk about sex and Covid-19, you need to consider these droplets. Since these droplets carry the infection in the saliva and mucus, when you are kissing, you actually swap the infected spit. 

The droplets will then transmit to the uninfected individual, and the virus will start to invade the cells and multiply. When you see it from this perspective, then yes. You can transmit the virus while kissing during intercourse. 

But, do have in mind, it’s very early to tell if the infection could be transmitted through sexual acts. There isn’t any research or analytics that could confirm that. However, generally speaking, this is NOT a typical sexually transmitted disease, according to WHO (World Health Organization).

How to Avoid This Virus?

According to Prof. Gary Whittaker, at the Cornell University of Veterinary Medicine, this infection can rather easily be destroyed. 

Hygiene is very important. Make sure to wash your hands all the time and avoid close contact with an infected individual. Disinfecting surfaces can also be beneficial. Disinfectants will break down the small microbes and leave them harmless WHO suggests standing at least 3 feet from an infected individual. But, it’s difficult to avoid the virus if it’s being spread through saliva. If you believe to be infected, it’s best to get a checkup. 

Since March the 2nd, statistics show almost 90,000 individuals have been infected, and 3,000 have died.


Cervical Cancer In Africa Linked To Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Cervical Cancer In Africa Linked To Sexually Transmitted Diseases Image

Recent studies report an increase in the prevalence of cervical cancer among women in Africa. Researchers believe that this may be linked to certain sexually transmitted diseases. Women in Africa are urged to undergo frequent testing. This accounts especially for women who are sexually active. Early diagnoses of sexually transmitted diseases help to ensure a more successful treatment plan. 

Cervical Cancer Rates Among African Women

A recent report by WHO Africa provided the latest data on cervical cancer among the African female population. An estimated 68,000 new cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed in the country each year. WHO Africa notes that this is only an estimated figure. There are several healthcare challenges faced by African women. With this in mind, accurate figures maybe even larger than the current estimates. 

The major concern is that cervical cancer is often considered a preventable condition. Unfortunately, it still remains a major concern among the African female population. At least 22% of cancers diagnosed among women in Africa are cervical cancer. 

Human Papillomavirus And Cervical Cancer

Current estimates for cervical cancer seem to have a connection to the rate of sexually transmitted diseases in African countries. Research suggests that one of the most critical causes that women need to realize is human papillomavirus. Also called HPV, an estimated 70% of cervical cancer cases in Africa are now thought to be associated with this STD. 

Early detection of human papillomavirus is a key element in reducing the risk of cervical cancer. Unfortunately, many women will only discover their HPV infection once cervical cancer has already developed. With this in mind, sexually active women need to ensure they are frequently tested for HPV, as well as other common STDs in Africa. 

Warts are the most common symptom associated with an HPV infection. These warts will most often affect the genital area of the woman. African women are urged to be on the lookout for such warts. This becomes a major concern among women who are sexually active today. 

Testing for HPV infection is a relatively easy and straightforward process. In some cases, HPV may be diagnosed through visual inspection of warts that have developed. There are additional tests that can also be performed. This can help the doctor make a more accurate diagnosis. Other possible causes behind warts can also be ruled out when additional tests are ordered. 

An effective HPV vaccine is available. This can help to effectively reduce the risk of African women. Safe sex is another important preventative strategy to consider. 


Cervical cancer is common in Africa, along with the STD human papillomavirus. These two have a close relation. The World Health Organization urge women in Africa to undergo frequent HPV testing. Appropriate measures are required to assist in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer among the African female population. Early diagnosis plays a key role in assuring such a goal can be reached. 


HIV Patients Exposed to A Higher Risk of Coronavirus

HIV Patients Exposed to A Higher Risk of Coronavirus Image

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus – a deadly virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, better known as AIDS. Transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse, HIV/AIDS is one of the main deadly sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), although there are other possible ways of transmission. 

HIV patients in fear for their lives because of the new coronavirus

HIV, as deadly and dangerous as it is, is not uncommon. Back in 2018, there were approximately 37.9 million people affected by HIV around the world. 36.2 million of those were adults and around 1.7 million were children younger than 15 years. 

And it seems that it is Africa where most of the infected population with HIV – both adults and children, live. As of 2014, in Ghana, Africa, alone there have been roughly 150,000 people diagnosed with HIV, and the assumption is that the numbers are even greater because of the well-known fear that HIV/AIDS is treated within Africa. But what is even more unfortunate is the fact that around 91% of the HIV-infected children live in Africa. 

HIV-positive individuals and AIDS patients are constantly living in fear for their lives because of how fragile their immune system is. And although therapy does help a lot, they are still treated as chronically ill individuals. 

Now, with the new coronavirus outbreak since early December, which first happened in Wuhan, China, it seems that this fear is even greater, and for a good reason, that is. Because of their poor immune system, HIV/AIDS patients are exposed to a higher risk of getting infected with the new coronavirus as compared to the general population.

The problem is that the coronavirus, although it causes flu-like symptoms, is also the cause of many death cases. In fact, as of 27th March, there have been roughly 28,269 deaths due to the coronavirus on a global level. In South Africa, there have been 1,170 infected and only one case of death. In Egypt, there have been around 536 infected and no dead, which is certainly good news. 

Because of their weakened immune system, these individuals are unable to fight off the infection, thus being exposed to a higher risk of not only being affected by it but also being affected by worse complications and possibly even death. That is why any chronically ill patients, including AIDS patients, are warned against the dangers of coronavirus.

They are advised to stay in self-isolation and practice social distancing as two of the best prevention methods that we know of when it comes to the coronavirus. Awareness has to be raised if we are interested in protecting these and any other chronically ill patients from the deadly coronavirus that does not seem to stop affecting more and more people all around the world, including Africa. 


Fish Shortage in Kenya Leads to Increase in Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Fish Shortage in Kenya Leads to Increase in Sexually Transmitted Diseases Image

Africa is one of the countries where high rates of sexually transmitted diseases have been registered. Although the lack of knowledge, the feelings of shame, and considering sexual health as a taboo topic has its influence over these high rates, it is a troubling system that may contribute the most. Today we will discuss the system of trading sex-for-fish.  

The sex-for-fish trade in Kenya

If you take a walk on the shores of Lake Victoria in Kenya, you will notice women giving empty bags to the fishermen, before they take off and go fishing either at night or very early in the morning. Then, when the fishermen come back, you will see their bags of fresh fish lying next to them in their boats.

The women, however, cannot get their hands on that fresh fish for a low price. The price of that fresh fish is actually not measured in money, but rather in sexual favors. The fishermen in Kenya are famous for taking advantage of these poor women, trading sexual favors for fish. 

Lately, more gay men are seen doing the same thing – trading sex for fish in order to survive. The fish that they later receive in return serve as either food for their families or stock to be sold in order to make for a living. It is an awful system that hundreds of men and women take part in, selling their bodies in order to survive.

How the fish shortage in Kenya leads to a noticeable increase in sexually transmitted diseases

Throughout the last couple of years, there has been a fish shortage around Lake Victoria in Kenya. That is why the fishermen go on fishing around Tanzania and Uganda as well. But that is surprisingly not the only thing that they are doing there. 

There, these fishermen are also engaging in the fish-for-sex system, getting involved in sexual encounters with different women and gay men for that matter. This process not only degrades women, but it also exposes them to the high risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including the much-dangerous HIV/AIDS. 

There has been a noticeable increase in sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. In fact, Kenya is considered to be one of the six HIV “high burden” countries in Africa. It is all about how easily HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, for that matter, are spread, affecting more people in different parts of Africa. 

Luckily, there have been more and more empowered women who have boat ownership and are skillful fishmongers with business skills. They usually have a higher income, so they no longer have to trade sex for fish, thus working against the spreading of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. However, their number is still significantly smaller compared to the number of women who are still part of the sex-for-fish system.


Trading sexual favors for fish is a part of the everyday lives of many women who have been living in Kenya. HIV/AIDS has also become a part of the lives of more women who have been living in this part of the world as well. Because of that, an increase in sexually transmitted diseases has been registered throughout the years.


Common Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Nigeria

Common Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Nigeria Image

From genital ulcers, infertility, difficulty urinating, to horrifying pain – the common sexually transmitted diseases can cause quite a variety of symptoms. Although doctors and researchers keep warning us against these diseases and how important it is to get protected against them, there are still parts of the world, such as Nigeria, where the rates of the common sexually transmitted diseases are incredibly high.

The most common sexually transmitted diseases in Nigeria

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites, spread by having unprotected sexual intercourse – oral, vaginal, and/or anal. Some STDs do not have a cure, but one thing that all STDs share is the difficult symptoms and the dangerous complications that can happen if their symptoms are left untreated.

Some of the most common STDs in Nigeria are:

  • Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a common STD in Nigeria, affecting around 9.6% of its population. The prevalence of Chlamydia is especially high in Lagos, affecting around 51% of the people – both men and women living there. It is because of the lack of symptoms at the early stage of Chlamydia, that makes this disease so difficult to be detected and properly treated. This also increases the risk of spreading the infection by those who are unaware of either its existence or ignorant about the health risks that it poses. 

  • Gonorrhea

Back in 1963, Lagos was found to be the highest carrier of the gonorrhea infection in the world. Now, decades after, the rates of gonorrhea in Nigeria are still dangerously high, although we see a continuous decline in most countries worldwide. In fact, gonorrhea is considered to be the most common STD in this country. According to recent surveys, the prevalence of gonorrhea is considered to be as high as 28.1%.

  • Syphilis 

Another common STD in Nigeria is syphilis. Many people who got infected with syphilis are asymptomatic, it is easy for this infection to be spreading, while its rates keep on increasing. A 1989 study showed that when tested, 1.5% of the pregnant women in Lagos have tested positive for syphilis. Syphilis is a highly dangerous disease during pregnancy since it can be easily transmitted to the baby in the womb, causing horrifying complications such as premature death.


Nigeria is one of the countries with high rates of STDs. Unfortunately, the people of Nigeria are not speared of any STD; however, there are some STDs such as gonorrhea, syphilis, and Chlamydia, that are more common than others. With that being said, it is of vital importance to spread the word about getting tested, protected, and properly treated against any of these common STDs.


Kaposi Sarcoma in Africa

Kaposi Sarcoma in Africa Image

Kaposi sarcoma is a type of cancer. The cancer is generally associated with a specific strain of the herpes virus. This is the virus commonly known for causing the development of bumps in the genital area. Some strains of herpes are also known for causing cold sores. 

Research suggests that it is especially common in African countries. The prevalence of the condition is significantly higher among the local population in Africa, particularly when compared to some of the more developed countries throughout the world. 

The Impact Of Kaposi Sarcoma In African Countries

Kaposi sarcoma is a condition often described as rare in many of the developed countries, such as the United States. On the other hand, it is described as an endemic disease in Africa, as well as a number of other countries. Being described as an endemic disease within Africa generally means that it is rather common for a person to develop this type of cancer in the country. 

One scientific review paper looked at evidence regarding reports of the disease among African patients. The researchers behind the paper were able to confirm that at the moment, it did pose a health concern within the sub-Saharan African region. At the moment, research is also somewhat limited in terms of how the condition should be addressed. 

Another problem noted by the study is a high prevalence of HIV among patients diagnosed with Kaposi Sarcoma. The presence of these two conditions together may have a significant adverse impact on a patient’s likeliness of surviving. 

Signs Of Kaposi Sarcoma

Patients who are currently sexually active in Africa are advised to become acknowledged with the symptoms associated with the disease. Early detection might be useful as a way of possibly improving the prognosis for the patient. 

Possible signs of Kaposi Sarcoma may include:

  • Blotches and bumps may develop on the skin. These blotches may sometimes develop inside the mouth or throat too. They will be elevated. The blotches may have a purple, brown, red, or pink color. 
  • Lymphedema may be a sign of Kaposi Sarcoma.
  • The patient may have an unexplained cough. 
  • There may also be chest pain with no cause identified behind this symptom. 
  • Some people tend to experience stomach pain and intestinal pain with no explanation as to what may be causing the symptoms. 

In cases where the lesions caused by Kaposi sarcoma develop in the patient’s digestive system, the individual may experience a blockage in their gastrointestinal tract too. 

The development of Kaposi sarcoma is linked to an infection by a specific type of herpes virus. The disease is a type of cancer that does seem to hold associations with other conditions too. Limited evidence suggests a possible link to lymphoproliferative disorders. The disease also seems to be more prevalent in Africa than in many other countries. 


How Common is HIV and Syphilis Co-Infection in Ghana, Africa?

How Common is HIV and Syphilis Co-Infection in Ghana, Africa?

HIV and syphilis are dangerous enough when they appear alone, but even more dangerous when they appear together, causing a co-infection to occur, especially in pregnant women, thinking on all of the things that can go wrong with both the mother’s and the baby’s health. in the following article, we will look a bit deeper in the prevalence of a HIV/syphilis co-infection in Ghana, Africa and discuss the risks that an infection of that kind brings.

HIV and syphilis co-infection

HIV, short from human immunodeficiency virus, is a virus that damages the human immune system, causing the unfortunately well-known disease called AIDS. HIV is most commonly transmitted due to unprotected sexual intercourse, including oral, vaginal, and anal, while it can also be transmitted through bodily fluids such as saliva, blood, semen, vaginal and rectal fluids.

Currently, there is a dangerously high HIV prevalence around the world, with an especially high rise in the number of HIV cases in Ghana, Africa. As of 2014, there have been roughly 150,000 people infected with HIV in Africa alone, while it has been suggested that around 91% of the children infected with HIV worldwide are living in Africa.

But it is not only HIV whose rates are high in Africa. There are other STDs to be mentioned as well, with syphilis being one of them. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a bacteria known as Treponema palladium. This infection is also transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse, with dangerously high rates on an international level, and approximately 8.5% prevalence of syphilis in Cape Coast, Ghana.

The prevalence of HIV and syphilis co-infection in Ghana, Africa

What is frightening about HIV and syphilis is that they often appear in a sort of co-infection, being strongly linked with one another. Although syphilis alone is highly treatable thanks to the discovery of penicillin, it increases the incidence of HIV infections on an international level.

Syphilis and HIV can be transmitted during pregnancy from the infected mother to her baby in the womb, increasing the risk of neonatal death, spontaneous abortus, low birth weight, and congenital syphilis and HIV infection among many others. Because of the high probability of an existing HIV/syphilis infection during pregnancy, it is of vital importance that every pregnant woman is tested for both HIV and syphilis as early as the first visit to the doctor’s office as well as all throughout the different stages of pregnancy.

A study published in the Journal of Infection investigated the seroprevalence of HIV/syphilis co-infection in Ghana, Africa. The results showed that the seroprevalence of HIV/syphilis co-infection is approximately 18.4%, which serves as a relatively high seroprevalence. The researchers continued to explain how early testing and detecting in addition to proper treatment in the cases where there is a positive presence of HIV or syphilis or a co-infection for that matter, contributes to the reduction of the risk of these two infections being further spread among the population.

The study also revealed that when there is an HIV/ syphilis co-infection, the patients usually present with the first HIV symptoms a lot earlier, as compared with those patients where there is only HIV infection being present. This means that by raising awareness, we can work to improve the chances of these patients noticing and reporting their symptoms in the early stages, eventually proceeding to gain access to proper treatment with penicillin and ART (antiretroviral therapy).


In the last couple of years, more and more people in Ghana, Africa, as well as all around the world, have been struggling with an HIV/syphilis co-infection. This co-infection is known to bring various risks and reduce the quality of life of these individuals, but what is even more dangerous is the impact that this co-infection has on the health of pregnant women and their babies.


Circumcision Reduce STD Diseases In Africa

Circumcision Reduce STD Diseases In Africa Image

There is a rising concern related to the presence of sexually transmitted diseases among the African population. Among the various conditions currently affecting the population, one of the most concerning noted in several scientific publications comes down to HIV. The World Health Organization is now suggesting the implementation of a strategy that recommends circumcisions among male patients. According to the World Health Organization, the use of circumcisions may provide a reduction in the risk and prevalence of acquired sexually transmitted infections among the local population in Africa. 

WHO Recommends Circumcisions For African Men

Following the recognition of HIV as a healthcare epidemic in African countries, the World Health Organization has decided to step in. The idea behind the movements from the World Health Organization is to implement preventive measures. This may assist in reducing the rate at which new cases of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections are diagnosed. 

The World Health Organization has announced that they now advise men to consider circumcision as a way of preventing or at least reducing the risk of sexually transmitted diseases. 

According to an official publication by the World Health Organization, there are studies that have already proven circumcision as an effective way of reducing the risk that a patient has when it comes to the transmission of HIV. In fact, the WHO reports a 60% reduction in the risk of HIV in a male patient who had a circumcision. The statistics have been conducted on men who have heterosexual sexual intercourse. 

The WHO does further state that male circumcision is not a complete solution. The use of this particular strategy may assist in providing partial protection. Men are advised to consider the process of undergoing circumcision as simply one preventive strategy that they utilize. The organization continues to explain that men will need to continue using additional preventive strategies in order to effectively reduce the risk of acquiring HIV. 

Even though this recommendation comes from WHO, there are some researchers and medical experts who do not seem to agree. A publication in the Journal of Public Health in Africa refers to WHO advising men to undergo circumcisions as a way of distracting the public from other preventive strategies that could be implemented too. This paper also describes circumcision as an ineffective way of potentially reducing the risk of HIV transmission through heterosexual sexual intercourse. 

STDs and Circumcision

Sexually transmitted diseases are considered highly prevalent in Africa. HIV is one of the most frequently noted STDs, but other diseases, such as herpes, Chlamydia, and gonorrhea still remain an important concern among the local population. New suggestions from the WHO advises men to undergo circumcision as a method of reducing the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases. 


Implant Protect Women From HIV

Implant Protect Women From HIV Image

 HIV is a highly prevalent sexually transmitted infection. People who are infected with HIV have no way of curing the infection. There are effective strategies that may help with the management of HIV, but prevention should always be a priority. Through years of research, scientists have developed numerous strategies that help to assist in reducing the prevalence of HIV infections. One of the most recent advancements come in the form of an implant. The implant seems to assist in reducing the risk of HIV in the female population. 

The Prevalence Of HIV Among The Female Population

HIV is prevalent among the worldwide female population. In some countries, however, there does seem to be a higher risk and prevalence of the HIV infection, compared to other countries. Data from a publication in the Journal of AIDS Research and Therapy provide more insight into the prevalence of the condition in specified populations. 

According to the research paper, about one-third of all cases related to HIV infections are linked to the sub-Saharan Africa region. The paper also explains that the current prevalence of HIV among the female population in this region is considered unacceptable. Even though many advancements have been made in terms of preventing HIV infections, the condition still remains a prevalent STD among this particular population – and many other populations in underdeveloped countries too. 

How An Implant May Prevent HIV In Women

New strategies are constantly being developed to help reduce the prevalence of HIV among the worldwide population. A new strategy focuses primarily on women, due to the high vulnerability often noted among the female population. 

The new strategy comes in the form of a vaginal implant. The implant is administered by a licensed physician and will remain present in the vagina of the female patient. Once implanted, the small medical device will focus on helping the woman’s risk of being infected with HIV. 

The vaginal implant is equipped with a special drug. The drug puts the T cells that are found in the genital tract of the female patient in a “quiescent” state. This means the T cells become less active – leading to a reduced productive state for the virus that causes HIV infections.

Researchers have found that when T cells in the vagina are placed into this type of resting state, it may potentially block the HIV virus early in its life cycle

The New Implant Might Be The Solution

A new implant may be the key to reducing the risk of HIV infections among women. HIV does not only pose a risk to a woman but during pregnancy, the condition is often carried over to the unborn child. Reducing the risk through this new implant will play an important role in the preventative strategy that the world is implementing.